A2.1 Pedagogy, values and goals
Chair: Brandy P. Quinn, Texas Christian University
Hong Kong teachers’ perceptions of “participation in protests”
Koon Lin Wong, The Education University of Hong Kong; Chi Kin John Lee, The Education University of Hong Kong; Kin Sang Jacqueline Chan, The Education University of Hong Kong; Kerry John Kennedy, The Education University of Hong Kong/ University of Johannesburg
This study examined teachers’ perceptions of “participation in protest” as a characteristic of “good citizens”. The quantitative results indicated that “participation in protests” was considered to be the least important characteristic of “good citizens” and least effective for cultivating “good citizens”. The qualitative findings revealed that teachers held reservations on “participation in protests” as an important characteristic of “good citizens”. Hong Kongers have participated in protests actively, such as Occupy Central Movement. These social movements suggested a gap between teachers’ perceptions of protests and new waves of political engagement. This gap has policy and pedagogical implications for education practices.
Meaningful citizenship education
Yvonne Leeman, Windesheim University/ University of Humanistic Studies
We’ll report on a design-based research project (duration four years) in which 22 teachers of four Dutch schools for secondary education researched their own school and developed (guided by teacher educators/researchers) meaningful citizenship education activities for their students. They developed culture changing citizenship education activities by linking these activities to the development of a democratic and inclusive school culture, students’ real life situations and students’ engagement in the lessons.
Teacher beliefs about civic purpose
Brandy P. Quinn, Texas Christian University
This qualitative study explores high school teachers’ beliefs about the ways in which civic purpose, particularly when understood as a framework for civic development, may be supported in the classroom. The researcher examines teacher beliefs about academic disciplines as pathways to civic purpose, as well as the practices teachers use to support development across the dimensions of civic purpose. Implications for teacher education and classroom practice will be shared.
What democracy “should be” and what “really is”
Diego Argumero, Deusto University
This paper reports the preliminary results of a qualitative study into the narratives about democracy of 30 high school students from different regions in Colombia. The aim of the study was to analyze their grasp of the contradictions between normative and experiential narratives about democracy, in order to identify what kind of discourses about civic engagement, social justice and peaceful coexistence are produced, and how these discourses legitimize questions, normalize or dispute different kinds of violence, inequalities and political and/or social exclusion, which are key elements to understand the armed conflict in Colombia.
B2.1 Development of values and purpose
Chair: Anne Colby, Stanford Graduate School of Education
Developmental complementarities and disparities in marriages and divorces: Pinter and Fraser
Albert Erdynast, Antioch University Los Angeles; Wendy Chen, Antioch University Los Angeles; Scott Taylor, Antioch University Los Angeles; Amanda Ikin, Antioch University Los Angeles
The question of whether to remain in a reductive marriage or whether to divorce is one of the most pressing questions in adulthood. The case study of the relationship between Harold Pinter, a prominent playwright who went on to win a Nobel Prize and Antonia Fraser, who has written 14 biographies and novels, based on her book Must you Go? is used to illustrate developmental compatibilities. Pinter’s previous marriage is analyzed to illustrate developmental disparities.. General findings of the relationships across the four domains will be presented.
Purpose in later life – Toward a cultural revolution
Anne Colby, Stanford Graduate School of Education; William Damon, Stanford Graduate School of Education; Matthew Bundick, Duquesne University; Kathleen Remington, Stanford Graduate School of Education
This paper presents findings from a new study that investigates purpose beyond-the-self in Americans beyond the age of 50. Using a survey with a diverse national sample of 1200 and in-depth interviews with a subsample of 100, the study investigates why some people during late middle age and beyond focus entirely on relaxation and self-enrichment while, for some others, the goals that organize life include legacy and social contribution. The driving question of the study is how we can foster a cultural shift toward meaningful contribution as a widespread and highly valued part of life after middle age.
The development of purpose and gratitude among adolescents
Susan A. Mangan, Claremont Graduate University; Rachel Baumsteiger, Claremont Graduate University
A growing body of empirical research finds that young people with a productive and meaningful sense of direction in life, or purpose, are poised to thrive. Sadly, few young people report having a purpose in life. To date, most of these efforts have focused on cultivating the virtue of purpose on its own, but we argue, that for at least two reasons, it may make more sense to approach purpose through the lens of gratitude. In this paper, we propose two ways the cultivation of gratitude may set the stage for the growth of purpose.
The problem of purposelessness?
Perry L. Glanzer, Baylor University
Although purposelessness is a rather rare phenomenon among American adults (6%), young people are quite different. Depending upon the age group surveyed and definition of purpose used, anywhere from a quarter to three fourths of young people lack purpose. Scholars are divided about whether this situation is a major problem. This paper explores the nature of these purposeless students by presenting our findings from interviews with 54 purposeless college students from across the country. The coding revealed that college students tend to articulate their purposelessness in two different ways that explain why a divide exists in the scholarship about purposelessness.
C2.1 Character education and civic competences
Gutman Conference Center Area 1
Symposium: The social construction of citizenship: Reflections on educational programmes and practices
Chair: Silvia Diazgranados, Harvard Graduate School of Education
It is recognized that the effects of schooling go beyond the acquisition of knowledge about the rights and obligations of citizens, and that the curriculum can be used to promote cohesion and social justice, especially in divided societies. Education for citizenship is essential for teaching democratic values, to create a collective identity, and to have access to justice. This symposium will address theoretical and practical approaches to define and measure different countries’ goals on Civic and Citizenship Education, as local and global initiatives to measure these constructs. It will also identify related variables that are related to students’ civic competencies.
A comparison of curricula and educational practices in three countries: Its Impact on political participation
Benilde García-Cabrero, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; María Pérez-Martínez, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes; Andrés Sandoval-Hernández, University of Bath
Schools and teacher’s characteristics as determinants of civic knowledge, attitudes and future political participation among Chilean secondary school students
Ernesto Treviño, Catholic University of Chile; Consuelo Béjares, Catholic University of Chile; Cristóbal Villalobos, Catholic University of Chile; Eloísa Naranjo, Universidad Diego Portales
The explained and unexplained sources of the civic knowledge gap in Chile, Colombia and Mexico: The role of differences in characteristics and returns to school resources, school climate and civic learning opportunities
Silvia Diazgranados, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Andrés Sandoval, University of Bath
D2.1 Narrative, story and history
Symposium: Youth participation as identity and narrative
Chair: Helen Haste, Harvard Graduate School of Education
The expanded definition of civic participation that is called ‘New Civics’ encompasses a much wider spectrum of action than conventional support. This challenges many assumptions about what needs to be studied in order to understand real world civic engagement. We argue that work on youth participation opens up rather different perspectives on what it means to be a ‘civic agent’ and especially, what prompts action. We focus particularly on the role of narrative.
Civic identity as a critical synthesis of the individual, dialogic and cultural
Helen Haste, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Data suggest that “civic identity” encompasses much more than party affiliation but also includes the factors which provide a sense of efficacy, how people are positioned and position themselves in relation to understanding and managing power structures, and the importance of different discourses and cultural narratives in providing the resources for young people to develop a “civic identity”. I locate these factors, efficacy, positioning and narrative, within a model that treats the individual, the interactive/dialogic, and the cultural, as a total dynamic system, building on critical theory and the work of Bakhtin, Vygotsky and Freire.
Making sense of controversy: Identity and discourses in adolescents’ narratives of sensitive history
Everardo Pérez-Manjarrez, Autonoma University of Madrid
Present study addresses the adolescents” meaning making processes of socio-historical issues. It is discussed the relationship between the consumption of cultural narratives and the personal civic identity construction of young learners from different age and national backgrounds. A comparative study was conducted with two hundred Mexican and Spanish students of fourteen and sixteen years old, analyzing the circumstances by which they socially engage while interpreting cultural stereotypes in advertising. The analysis considers discursive, moral, identity and political aspects, in order to interpret how students make sense of cultural stereotypes from their in-group identity and cultural discourses, negotiating their own subjectivities.
Narrative learning in the pursuit of civic identity
Isolde de Groot, University of Humanistic Studies, Utrecht
Educational researchers who adopt a “New Civics” approach have argued that education for democracy and democratic citizenship requires moving beyond teaching about democracy and generating participatory experiences. Building on literature on narrative development and narrative learning in narrative psychology, life-long learning, adult and civic education, this paper theorizes about the nature of narrative learning, the interrelatedness of narrative learning in every-day life and narrative learning in an educational context, possible aims of narrative education for civic identity, and the viability of a narrative approach in civic education.
Moral education through oral narratives: Perspectives from indigenous communities
Maung T. Nyeu, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Since the dawn of civilization, the tradition of story-telling has been a hallmark of human experience all over the world. Over the millennia, it has taken many forms, including songs, poetry, dance, etc. Even today, Indigenous communities around the world maintain a rich oral story-telling tradition. Oral story-telling is used as a method for teaching ancestral wisdom and moral values to young children. In this paper, I explore oral story-telling as a vehicle for civic lessons and ethical exploration from three indigenous communities: Marma people in Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, Navajo in the United States, and the Maasai in Kenya.
E2.1 Social media, activism and marginality
Chair: Matthew Shaw, American Bar Foundation
Marginalized youths’ perceptions of societal fairness differentially predict civic participation
Matthew A. Diemer, University of Michigan; Luke J. Rapa, Michigan State University
This research examines how marginalized youths’ perceptions of societal fairness are differentially associated with distinct forms of political action. Structural equation modeling was applied to nationally representative data from the Civic Education Study (2,811 ninth graders; Mage = 14.6), first establishing measurement invariance across samples of poor/working class African American and Latino/a adolescents. Perceptions of societal inequality and beliefs that society ought to be more equal differentially predicted conventional political action vs activism —while controlling for civic achievement and with nuances between ethnic and racial groups. Unexpectedly, political efficacy did not mediate or moderate these relations.
Brexit and otherness: A modest unsystematic reflection
James C. Conroy, University of Glasgow
This paper explains and analyses some of the socio-cultural and latent religio-moral forces at work in precipitating the vote by the UK to leave the European Union,. In doing so it illustrates the way in which difference and otherness has re-emerged as a nostrum of political identity. Moreover, it also disembowels the notion that the Exit vote was an exercise in the right of the demos to assert its will and thereby restore decisions by and for Britons; a re-assertion of the primacy of the people against the corrosive hegemony of the oligarchs. Drawing on the work of Arendt this disembowelling points to the emergence (or re-emergence) of thinly disguised nationalistic identity that has surfaced as a disenchantment with the liberal project. It goes on to argue that such liberal renderings of notions of identity and their attendant pedagogies have been fundamentally flawed and proposes a different educational approach to interculturality.
The separation of dinosaur and state: Educational gerrymandering and morality
Kaylee R. Seddio, University of North Texas; Tyler Yates, University of North Texas
A subset of state school boards in the United States have begun viewing education as a political instrument. Through a process of educational gerrymandering these school boards are actively manipulating state education curricula to embed their own political and moral beliefs within the population of future voters in an attempt to maintain their preferred moral and political outcomes. This process has occurred simultaneously with a rise in strong authoritarian and prejudicial views coming from these same states. This paper examines the possible relationship between these two phenomena and describes the potential effects, both political and developmental, of educational gerrymandering.
Transcending sex: The role of defining sex in Title IX
Matthew Shaw, American Bar Foundation
In the U.S., Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 requires educational institutions to not discriminate on the basis of “sex.” The law has become primary vehicle through which colleges have begun to offer courses, athletic opportunities, and other resources to women on an equitable basis to men. While Congress clearly contemplated “sex” as an uncomplicated binary, over time, experiences around “sex,” including sexual assault, gender identity and expression, and sexual orientation have raised new questions about what “sex” means to the law. This paper explores how the evolving definition of “sex” influences developing Title IX jurisprudence.
F2.1 China: civic and moral education
Symposium: Rethinking civic engagement in contemporary China
Chair and Discussant: Chuanbao Tan, Professor, Beijing Normal University
This symposium presents four cutting-edge studies on “civic engagement” in Chinese context, rethinking the relationship between the nation, citizens and civil society actors. It highlights the agency of student citizens and the role of school and family. The first two papers, based on Chinese young people’s perspectives and experiences, explore how middle school students understood and sought for their rights, and how university students applied social media to change civic participation patterns. The other two, located in Shanghai, showcase how school leaders innovated citizenship principles within the structure and how family socioeconomic status affected youth civic participation.
An investigation on the implement of students’ rights in school, based on Isaiah Berlin’s framework of “two concepts of liberty”
Ban Jianwu, Beijing Normal University; Chuanbao Tan, Beijing Normal University
The formation of modern citizens” consciousness of rational rights needs favorable daily condition. In order to cultivate citizens” rights consciousness in accordance with their aptitude and adapting to local conditions, it is significant to investigate the current situation of students’ rights in school life. Based on “Two Views of Freedom” proposed by Isaiah Berlin, this research distinguishes students’ rights into negative and positive rights. The investigation on Chinese mainland middle school students’ rights consciousness was conducted by the use of questionnaires, including three aspects: the subject of right, the content of right and the operation of right.
The transformation of civic participation in the social media age? Patterns of youth cybercivic participation in China
Lin Ke, Beijing Normal University
This paper, based on a virtual ethnographic research, presents a multi-levelled model of youth cybercivic participation in China. It argues that the positive transformation of cybercivic participation will not happen until young people have reflective capability. Considering two indicators: interactivity and productivity, the research categorizes the forms of cybercivic participation into four patterns: lurking, announcing, networked-promoting, and community-constructing. Moreover, it is necessary to take reflexivity as another indicator, which is related to youth political socialization and community development. Addressing a life-course perspective, the paper concludes with the importance of integrating students’ everyday experience of cybercivic participation into university-based citizenship education.
Hewing the bottom line: Shanghai Principals’ leadership in citizenship education
Xu Shuqin, Sun Yat-Sen University
With reference to junior secondary schools in China’s Shanghai, this study explores how school leaders exercise their influence in citizenship education by interacting with diverse interest groups. Data was drawn from document analysis, non-participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The findings show that principals in Shanghai hewed the bottom line and led citizenship education within the framework prescribed by the state under the leadership of Communist Party of China, while acting as active agents in performing their professional ideas and mediating diverse expectations of multiple stakeholders. Principals’ leadership in citizenship education was shaped by inter-related factors from multi-leveled world.
Family socioeconomic status and out-of-school citizenship education in China’s Shanghai
Ye Wangbei, East China Normal University
Many studies noted the important role family socioeconomic status (SES) played in students’ out-of-school learning. However, very little is known about the relationship between students’ SES and citizenship education in out-of-school context. This study addressed this research gap, and conducted an out-of-school citizenship education survey in Shanghai in 2015. This paper found uneven provision of out-of-school citizenship education opportunities. Students from different SES families showed different degrees of participation. Parents’ education level and careers largely impacted their children’s degree of participation. However, this study also found that SES influence decreased as students grow older and as schools and out-of-school education organizations collaborate closer.
H2.1 Media and curricula workshop
The Toolbox: A journey through historic memory, learning peace and unlearning violence; Education for peace in post-agreement Colombia.
Maria J. Machado Forero, National Centre for Historic Memory (Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica)
The National Centre for Historic Memory believes that education for peace requires materials for teachers and students that allow them to: recognize and acknowledge human rights violations, and develop a “path of inquiry” to navigate history in a rigorous and empathic manner. In order to contribute to this effort, it created a Toolbox to teach the armed conflict in the classroom that incorporates these challenges as well as a suggest new generations a way to solve their own conflicts in a democratic fashion without giving up the recognition of structural injustices and inequalities that remain rampant in around them.
I2.1 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Chair: Karen Parish, Lillehammer University College
Exploring peace education in Colombia: Purposes and practices of the peace core subject
Maria I. Romero, University of Manchester
In 2014 the government of Colombia passed an Educational Law establishing a peace core subject in schools to develop a culture of peace in Colombia. Given that the Law is so recent, there have been no comprehensive evaluations of how has it been implemented in practice, or an assessment of its relation to broader theorizing on peace education. This paper addresses both gaps. It presents findings from research in 6 schools in Colombia to explore the extent to which these pedagogical programs develop civic engagement and proposes the notion of imperfect peace as an analytical tool to examine these efforts.
Human rights competence development in the International Baccalaureate organisation
Karen Parish, Lillehammer University College
Neo-institutional theorizing about globalisation and education is taken as a starting point with which to explore human rights competence development in International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) schools. The IBO mission statement, with its’ explicitly stated commitment to human rights ideals presents us with a case of homogeneity at the policy level across school types and countries. However, how can this commitment to human rights be measured in the competence of the students following the IBO programmes? Is this competence evident in IBO students regardless of school type or country? And, if context does make a difference to this competence, why?
Promoting civic and prosocial involvement: A reform in Israel high schools
Yael Barenholtz, Emeritus Israel Ministry of Education
The Ministry of Education launched a reform in its high school diploma in 2014, aiming for graduates who are committed to values of civic and social activism. Involving in personal and group community service would promote students’ personal growth, sense of community, social identity, commitment and pro-social behavior. First, research findings regarding the mandatory issue, attitudes and perceived effect on students and faculty will be presented.
J2.1 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Symposium: Lesson study: Professional development for middle school moral education teachers
Chair and Discussant: Wiel Veugelers, Universiteit voor Humanistiek Utrecht Netherlands
This talk provides the context of our work using Lesson Study in conjunction with domain theory for professional development of teacher leaders for moral education representing 17 middle schools (Grades 6-8) of an urban district.
In Lesson Study, teachers collaboratively 1) set goals, 2) plan a lesson, 3) teach a lesson while being observed and student learning data collected, and 4) debrief about the student learning in the lesson. Lesson study continuously focuses teachers” attention on student learning. It was the ideal context for generating the teachers” growth and for investigating their competencies to construct and implement domain-based lessons for moral development.
Teacher lesson study for moral education: Project structure and framework
Larry Nucci, University of California Berkeley
Lesson study for moral education within 7th Grade history: A case study
Robyn Gee, University of California Berkeley; Allegra Midgette, University of California Berkeley
This paper presents outcomes of Lesson Study for professional development of urban middle school teachers to integrate moral education within history lessons. Analyses revealed shifts in leadership from a dominant voice to shared contributions to lesson construction, increased willingness of teachers to welcome criticisms and suggestions from colleagues, ease with which groups identified issues for sociomoral growth within the curriculum, and adjustments in lesson structure in response to self-identified areas for improvement. There was student engagement and minimal off-task behavior. Participating teachers had significantly higher self-efficacy scores, higher levels of knowledge and greater endorsement of teaching practices consistent with development.
This presentation employs a case study to illustrate the Lesson Study process as it unfolded over one year as seventh grade middle school teachers generated history lessons designed to stimulate socio-moral development. Our presentation will demonstrate how teachers, as individuals, and as a group were challenged and grew from attempting to implement theory into practice in the 3 rounds of developing a lesson, teaching and observing their group members teach the lesson, debriefing and reflecting. We follow shifts in group leadership toward shared decision-making, and how the world of the teacher evolved into a professional community of educators.
Lesson study for moral education in middle school history: Teacher and student outcomes
Deborah W. Powers, University of California Berkeley
K2.1 Social media, activism and marginality
Symposium: Morality of dissent: Civic engagement through protest
Chair and Discussant: Larry Blum, University of Massachusetts Boston
These three papers make sense of the moral, pedagogical, and historical dimensions of protests movements as a distinctive mode of civic engagement. Schapira shows how campus politics creates a space for issues that have been excluded from normative democratic processes, where the content of the grievance is what counts. Thompson examines the historical record of protest in the U.S. and sheds light on the pedagogical dimensions of politics that transgress normative structures. Hayden provides a framework by and through which Schapira’s and Thompson’s critiques can be implemented as an exercise in the preservation of the rights of marginalized people.
Student protest, social cleavage, democratic process
Michael I. Schapira, Hofstra University
This paper will consider campus political movements, where it is the content of the grievance, not the form of the movement that integrates it into the democratic process, that takes primacy and leads to a closer focus on political strategy. I will argue that this shift is important because it retrieves a tradition of campus activism that focuses on those groups and ideologies excluded from the democratic process, and describes the strategy of leveraging broader social cleavages to articulate new and unexpected political demands that could not be expressed in traditional campus movements centered on free speech, civil rights, and autonomy from governmental or industry pressure.
On the pedagogical dimensions of morally acceptable political protests
Winston Thompson, University of New Hampshire
This engages perceptions of norms of civility and respectability, bringing them into contact with the truth of historical perceptions of the same during successful social movements of the past (Women”s suffrage in the 1920s and Civil Rights in the 1960s). Thompson highlights the degree to which these social movements received similar complaints of ethical transgression through political actions, though popular historical narratives do not reflect the depth of this discomfort. He asserts that a refocus on the structural features of politics illuminates the pedagogical dimensions of politics and recasts the ethical acceptability of contemporary protest efforts as educational acts.
Education in dissent: Preserving the rights of the marginalized through protest
Matthew J. Hayden, Drake University
Hayden considers approaches to an education in dissent from sociological and psychological research in protest movement participant motivations, including what it means to “legitimize” protest action and to understand that protest norms are embedded in political, historical, socioeconomic, and educational narratives that privilege a specific subset of social norms, namely middle-class bourgeoisie in most forms of social and political life. The purpose is to strip away the political and ideological frames that privilege social cohesion and status-quo policies and structures and replace them with frames that humanize participants and reveal the moral, compassionate, and social justice-bearing motivations for these movements.