Concurrent Sessions 2.2: 10:30 AM – 12:00 PM

A2.2 Pedagogy, values and goals
Larsen G08

Symposium: When teachers lose hope: The threat of demoralization
Chair and Discussant: Barbara Stengel, Vanderbilt University

This symposium addresses, broadly, the notion of teaching as moral praxis. Of particular concern are factors undermining this work, possibly leading to teachers’ loss of moral passion for the profession of teaching. We will examine teacher demoralization related to the mismatch between teachers’ moral motivations and the constrained view of education that has become the norm in the era of neoliberal focus on “homo economicus” and hear concretely ways moral motivation gets strangled for even the very best teachers. We will end with a discussion of the role of teacher education in helping (or hindering) the moral work of teaching.

Teacher demoralization in an age of homo oeconomicus
Doris A. Santoro, Bowdoin College

Demoralization derives from teachers’ inability to enact the values that motivate and sustain their work (Santoro, 2011a). Demoralization reaches its peak when teachers believe they are expected to violate one or both of the categories of “normative commitments”: norms of “client responsibility” and norms of “craft performance” (Lortie, 1967). For teachers experiencing demoralization, the moral dilemma is not what they should do to be a good teacher, but that they cannot do what they believe a good teacher should do in the face of policies, mandates, or institutional norms. Like moral distress in nursing, demoralization leads to teacher dissatisfaction and may lead to attrition (Santoro, 2011b). Assigning teachers moral responsibility without providing avenues for them to enact their moral agency can lead to moral madness (Santoro, 2015).

Moral motivation as vulnerability and strength
Jennifer Ekert, Lower Merion School District

I received my doctorate in developmental psychology in 2000, but chose to forgo a research/university career in favor of classroom teaching because I felt called to this work. Sixteen years later, I am trying to keep heart. Public education’s purposes have narrowed; assessment and standards continually trump moral aims schooling. In this symposium, I share my struggle with demoralization and my efforts to keep heart as a teacher whose moral voice has been dismissed or misunderstood. I use Santoro’s (2011) work as a theoretical lens for my reflections. I also address moral motivation as both vulnerability and strength in teaching.

From moral madness to moral Inspiration: Helping teachers reclaim their moral ground
Mary E. Casey, Tufts University

Demoralization erodes passions, undermines personal and professional commitments, and leads to disillusionment, or worse, despair. Students struggling to resist the downward spiral of despair, especially those for whom initiatives such as NCLB and Race the Top were enacted, need teachers who are morally vibrant and inspiring. Teachers must attend emotionally.

Countering teaching’s moral madness: The role of unhappiness in grounding (moral) identity
Barbara Stengel, Vanderbilt University

In this paper I take up, philosophically and practically, the juxtaposition of teachers’ experience of policy-induced demoralization with their continued commitment to tap and further develop rich moral perception and ethical motivation, a juxtaposition that generates a kind of moral madness. I offer a pragmatist response to this dilemma, one that tempers the unquestioning optimism of early pragmatism with a contemporary (even postmodern), explicit acknowledgement of limited agency, uncontrollable elements, and unintended consequences. Sara Ahmed’s analysis of unhappiness as the key to shaping agency and identity in response to inequitable social circumstances grounds my argument.

B2.2 Development of values and purpose
Gutman 440

Symposium: Purpose during youth: Civic expressions across cultures
Chair and Discussant: Seana M. Moran, Clark University

This year’s conference examines expanding definitions of civic engagement, their intersection with ethics, and implications for education. This symposium reports multinational research on youth purpose. Purposes are personally meaningful life goals, which arguably, include a beyond-the-self pro-social focus that is frequently civic in nature: it is related to duties of people in relation to their local area. Congruence or variability in the beyond-the-self expression of purpose however is unclear across cultures. Furthermore, this focus is debated in purpose definitions; thus the meaning of purpose to youth within and across cultures is important. All the presentations use purpose constructs to touch upon purpose’s civic expressions, and each illumines the civic in different ways. Shin, Kim, and Lee”s study of Korean youths’ purpose definitions conclude that youth do see the beyond-the-self focus as key to purpose. Sychev et al. find that life goals correlate with different sets of moral values among Kazakh, Russian, Mongolian, and German youth: civic goals of serving the people, the nation, and the state cohered with more conservative values, but overall, values have a relatively weak impact on adolescents’ goals. Mariano et al. examine expectations about how one high impact civic experience on service-learning  impacts youths’ purpose, using data from six countries.

The meaning of purpose for Korean college students
Jongho Shin, Seoul National University; Myung-Seop Kim, Seoul National University; ByungYoon Lee, Seoul National University

Considering that implicit knowledge reflects cultural differences, it is possible that the meaning of purpose in the eastern culture may differ from that in the western culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate what purpose means to eastern people. We asked 157 Korean college students, How do you define “purpose in life”? Define it in your own words. Korean college students thought of goal, meaning (value of life), and beyond-the-self as important aspects of purpose. Almost a third believed that purpose is the same as happiness, and considered purpose as the process of pursuing happiness.

Life purposes that Finnish social service students Identify as important
Niina Manninen, University of Helsinki; Elina Kuusisto, University of Helsinki; Kirsi Tirri, University of Helsinki

How service-learning influences youths’ purposes in six countries
Jenni Menon Mariano, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee; Ulisses Araujo, University of São Paulo; Kirsi Tirri, University of Helsinki; Jongho Shin, Seoul National University; Fei Jiang, Northeast Normal University; Pilar Folgueiras and Pilar Aramburuzabala, University of Barcelona/ Autonomous University of Madrid; Seana Moran, Clark University

More than 2000 college service-learning students in six countries (Brazil, China, Finland, Spain, USA, and South Korea) completed online surveys with both multiple-choice and open-ended questions, before, during, and after their service work experiences. Qualitative responses about life purpose were coded for mention of a specific aim and for narrative indicators of how the purpose arose and/or is leading. Qualitative responses describing service work were coded for students’ specific roles in the service work, direct interactions with those the service aimed to benefit, and specific emotions students felt during service. This study explored patterns among these responses and their implications for civic engagement.

C2.2 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall

Chair: Steve Thoma, University of Alabama

Empirical studies in moral competence of Chinese college students– an application of DIT2
Qian Zhang, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies

DIT (Defining Issues Test) is a milestone of methodological reformation in moral psychology, which breaks through the limits of interview talks and makes the assessment of individual psychology more objective and convenient. By using the updated version of DIT2, 216 college students in China participated in the empirical study. The result shows that students’ N2 score increases with the grades in general, but the sophomores majoring in Traditional Chinese score higher than others, which implies the effects of Chinese traditional culture on students. The result also shows no significant relationship between N2 score and academic performance.

Examining a theoretical concept of Confucian self: A preliminary study
Hong Jiang, Georgia State University; Steve Thoma, University of Alabama

This study attempted to describe and test a measure of Confucian self as defined in the Confucian ethics literature. Psychometric properties of the measure were assessed in pilot studies and nomological and predictive validities of the measure were examined with a sample of 380 Chinese and 250 American undergraduates in formal studies. The findings provided evidence that supports the existence of Confucian self as a moral construct and demonstrated a good reliability and validity of the instrument. Also, the findings produce evidence that illuminates associations among Confucian self, moral judgment, moral behavioral tendency and attitude toward behavioral outcome.

Moral growth mindset: How to measure and how it influences moral and civic development
Hyemin Han, University of Alabama; Youn-Jeng Choi, University of Alabama; Kelsie J. Dawson, University of Alabama; Changwoo Jeong, Seoul National University

The present study developed a questionnaire measuring moral growth mindset and tested its reliability and validity. The results of the reliability check using the Cronbach’s α and the validity check through the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that this measurement is a reliable and valid measurement for moral growth mindset. Furthermore, two longitudinal experiments were conducted to examine the influence of moral growth mindset on moral and civic development. These experiments showed that moral growth mindset significantly mediated the longitudinal change in motivation and behavior in moral and civic domains.

Social justice representations of students and teachers from Spain
Vanesa Sainz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Almudena Juanes, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Liliana Jacott, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Antonio Maldonado, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

In this empirical research, analyses the understanding that students and teachers have about Social Justice in 20 secondary schools from different regions of Spain. We have designed and applied a Social Justice Representations Questionnaire (SJRQ) to a sample of 3229 high school students, 207 in-service teachers and 683 pre-service teachers. The questionnaire includes a set of dilemmas about the three main dimensions of Social Justice: Redistribution, Recognition and Representation. The results show a good reliability of our instrument and significant differences in Social Justice conceptions regarding level of education, age and gender.

D2.2 Narrative, story and history
Longfellow 319

Chair: Michael Pitblado, Queen’s University

Historical empathy, moral education, and the Holocaust: Re-conceptualizing Holocaust education in the 21st century
Michael Pitblado, Queen’s University

Making the transition from paramilitary to peacemaker: The loss of moral accountability
Carmel E. Joyce, University College Cork; Orla Lynch, University College Cork

This paper examines narratives of former perpetrators of violence during the Troubles in Northern Ireland who, now released from prison serve community centers, working with at-risk youth. While theories suggest people who have made the transition from perpetrator to peacemaker feel a sense of remorse, regret, shame, and guilt for their actions, such is not the case with the participants in this study. The focus of this paper is to explore reasons for the missing sense of moral accountability in their narratives. Casting themselves as victims of war shields them from looking beyond the victim narrative, but for how long?

Movement is rising: Counternarrative as a tool for political and creative engagement in museums
Monica Montgomery, Museum of Impact; Hannah Heller, Teachers College

In this current era of social unrest there is a demonstrated need in both formal and informal educational institutions to address the role of racism and its collective impact on our students and audiences. The Museum of Impact, a mobile social justice museum, proposes the use of counternarrative, a concept developed by Critical Race Theory proponents as a tool to engage visitors in enacting their own interpretations of a better, more inclusive future. Utilizing a nontraditional pop-up model, MOI hopes to provide both a theoretical and practical framework for implementing creative, political, and revolutionary storytelling in more traditional museum spaces.

Pedagogical uses of historical memory for ethics and citizenship education
Mónica I. Almanza Marroquín, Universidad de los Andes

The purpose is to demonstrate some pedagogical uses of historical memory, for ethics and citizenship education in countries with a history of large scale violence. I intend to show why memories of pain, reparation and resistance can promote individuals’ participation in stopping the violent conflict, by means of illustrating what violence is, how it is produced and what harm it causes; in repairing the harm produced, by showing possible mechanisms reparation; and in guaranteeing the non-repetition of the armed conflict, by promoting a pluralist and deliberative democracy by means of the construction and deliberation over the products of memory.

E2.2 Theory and critique
Longfellow 228

Chair: Rod R. Stringer, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

A critically compassionate approach to financial literacy: Is it moral?
Thomas A. Lucey, Illinois State University

This paper interprets the morality of an approach to financial literacy founded on principle of developing a compassionate sense of self-worth. The analysis considers consistency of this framework as with moral principles (as opposed to principles of moral convention) and interprets whether it has a position within the various traditions of rational ethical thought.

A rhetorical approach to moral argumentation
Rod R. Stringer, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

The primary question: how the rich history and features of rhetoric might contribute to an approach to moral argumentation that holds the potential to assist in building upon our moral knowledge and practices. All forms and instances of argumentation are, by argumentation’s very nature, rhetorical: intended for convincing. Rhetoric should be viewed as a valuable tool that holds potential for infusing argumentation with elucidation and revitalization. Richard Rorty and Jacques Derrida have provided exemplary models of how we might utilize rhetoric to captivate an audience and to disturb a single-mindedness in order to affect an openness to the unfamiliar.

An ecological approach to normative reflection
Jacob Fay, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Building from Judith Shklar’s (1990) provocative reflections about injustice in The Faces of Injustice, this paper suggests that the theoretical challenges posed by injustice are also methodological challenges. I develop one possible response, what I term an ecological approach to normative reflection. This approach builds on recent methodological work in political philosophy that integrates real context and actual problems to normative theories. To distinguish my approach, I draw on the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner, whose ecological perspective offers ways to sharpen the iterative process required of developing theory that is attentive to facts about the world.

Dialogue, difference, and hospitality
Colin S. Bakker, University of Victoria

The notion of dialogue has been used to describe how, in all the difference and diversity of contemporary society, we are to live together. In Bakhtin’s use, dialogue is a condition for subjectivity, rather than as a tool of ethical mediation. Three features of dialogue are noted. First, that it does not describe an ethical, but an artistic, unity. Second, that it results in ethical ambiguity. Third, that the spatial metaphors of contact and juxtaposition describe relationships with difference. Richard Kearney’s notion of discerning hospitality is a possible way forward.

F2.2 China: civic and moral education
Gutman 303

Symposium: Is a democratic “civil society” ever possible in China? Challenges and possibilities in civic education
Chair: Tian Yu, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Will a modern, democratic civil society ever become a reality in China? Where to get started to develop new civic identities and build new citizenship? What are the challenges and possibilities in civic education in schools? Papers in this symposium address these questions from various theoretical and methodological perspectives.

Preparing for an unpredictable future: ideological forces shaping citizenship education
Liu Jiang, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Drawing from extant studies conducted in local Chinese communities, we examine the interactions and contradictory impacts of three major ideological forces in shaping citizenship education in China.

The rural-urban divide and challenges of civic development in China
Xin Xiang, Harvard Graduate School of Education

This paper problematizes an over-representation of urban sites in empirical research on civic development in China. It focuses on the rural-urban divide as a case study to illuminate the entanglement of structural inequality and civic education and development.

The cultural context of “goodness”
Helen Haste, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Xin Xiang, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Siwen Zhang, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Yiyu Li, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Conceptions of “virtue” and the goals of moral and civic education have both universalistic and highly idiosyncratic elements. Attempts to draw conclusions or formulate policies across cultural boundaries are fraught with potential misunderstandings. This paper explores how concepts of “goodness” in the moral and civic domains are reflected in contemporary Chinese discourses and how they may differ from Western parallels.

A new virtue-centered approach to civic education
Tian Yu, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

This paper discusses an alternative understanding of the place of virtue in civic education and envisions a different practice centered on particular virtues. An overarching framework for this new virtue-centered education is guided by a commitment to democratic citizenship needed in China.

G2.2 Culture and context
Larsen 214

Symposium: Civic participation and moral education: The challenges of Amazonian interculturalism
Chair: Susana Frisancho, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

This symposium will address civic engagement, moral conflicts and dilemmas, citizenship and moral education in contexts of cultural diversity, emphasizing the challenges that a real intercultural moral education presents for researchers and practitioners. The situation of social exclusion and cultural oppression that Amazonian indigenous people suffer represents a challenge for moral educators. In this demanding context, this symposium will discuss intercultural moral education as a fundamental need, a “cultural revolution” that demands from academics, researchers and teachers a real intercultural dialogue to advance larger ethical and political democratic projects.

Informed consent in culturally diverse contexts: A cultural revolution for researchers and educators
Susana Frisancho, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

This presentation reviews the basic assumptions of informed consent and contrasts them with the challenges and moral conflicts that culturally diverse contexts pose for psychological research. Assuming that democracy is a valuable educational, the presentation will analyze a pathway to compliance with the requirements of informed consent when working within highly diverse cultural and social contexts, and will discuss how to obtain informed consent in such scenarios not only to honor the rights of the people we work with and to recognize them as full citizens, but also to fulfill our role as moral and citizenship educators.

Civic engagement and moral development among the Shipibo-Koniko people
Guillermo Enrique Delgado, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

This presentation will address the many ways in which for the Shipibo-Konibo people, civic engagement and moral development are intertwined with their world view and with the process of becoming a person. This is a process which involves the community, the individual, and the diverse beings that populate the worlds that Shipibos recognize, especially the spirits (or ownersäó) of the plants. So, the process of becoming jonikon (which can be translated as true human being, and is the way the Shipibo-Konibo call themselves), is aimed at developing qualities such as thought, memory and reflection (shinan), wisdom (onan) and strength (koshi).

Civic participation, civic duty and citizenship from the perspective of the Ashíçninka People: Their encounter with the “Shining Path”
Benigno Vicente, Asociación Intercultural Bari Wesna

The Ashíçninkas, the Peruvian largest Amazonian indigenous group, were severely affected by the national armed conflict (1980-2000). According to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, out of 55,000 Ashíçninkas, 10,000 were displaced, 6,000 died, and between 30 to 40 communities disappeared. Many were kidnapped and held prisoner by the Maoist guerrilla movement The Shining Path. This presentation will discuss the Ashíçninka concept of citizenship, their strong ethnic identity as a key component to their civic engagement, and the way the Shining Path’s presence broke down Ashíçninka ethnic solidarity. Intercultural moral education will be discussed taking into account these painful experiences.

H2.2 Media and curricula workshop
Gutman G05

Civic/service learning model for STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics) courses at an HBCU/HSI institution
Solomon K. Nfor, St. Philip’s College, San Antonio; Jo D. Duncan, St. Philip’s College, San Antonio

Participants will be given an opportunity to design a community based project in STEAM. The proposal is one that has a two day training program design. By sharing the practices at this HBCU/HSI college, participants will have an idea of what has worked for this college and why it could be applicable in their institution. Participant Outcomes;


I2.2 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Longfellow 320

Symposium: The democracy of ideas
Chair and Discussant: Eleanor R. Duckworth, Harvard University

We call it a democracy of ideas, when all ideas in a classroom are given serious consideration – not just the ideas those of the ‘smart kids’ or the textbook or the teacher. We work to make it clear to students that any idea submitted with serious intent will be considered. It is not that all ideas are accepted as equally productive. It is that they are given a hearing – and discarded or adapted or further researched, as the discussion indicates. From a wide range of teaching settings, we will relate consequences and challenges of such democracy.

The collective construction of knowledge
Fiona McDonnell, Cambridge College; Lisa Schneier, Emmanuel College

Using the approach of critical exploration, we engage our students as learners in order to study with them the interactions of teaching and learning. These learning sessions provide opportunities to study the learning of a group. For the proposed session, we will provide, in a range of subject matters, examples of the “collective creation of knowledge” and its effects on our student teachers’ thinking about the practice of teaching.

Working toward democracy in the interplay of ideas in the classroom: Analyses and examples
Elizabeth Cavicchi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ideas generated by classroom participants come to have – in their eyes – such integrity as to be investigated, challenged, overturned, reconsidered, elaborated, solely on the grounds of the ideas’ operative and productive role in group learning. When the ideas of learners are accorded such a pivotal stance in classroom exchanges, participants’ thought and action take on continually renewing, outgoing and ongoing momentum.

Playing fair: Student-athletes in higher education
Anna Harris, Boston College

These students are often seen as not “smart” enough. But often in classrooms, it is not enough to have a good idea; ideas must be packaged in the format that academia accepts. Our work is to help the student-athletes, and their teachers and peers, recognize their ability to discover and nurture ideas. Through examples of students’ work, professors’ responses, and tutors’ experiences, this paper will examine ways to help students generate and express their ideas, and ways for their faculty and peers to receive and appreciate those ideas.

J2.2 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Larsen G01

Symposium: Scholarship and activism: Civic engagement and its discontents
Chair: Molly Andrews, University of East London

Most academics come to the subject of their research because it is something that they care about. This is particularly true when the focus of research relates to documenting and challenging social injustice and inequality. Is it desirable that scholars engage in political activism relevant to their research, or does this compromise their scholarship? Is scholarship which is not underpinned by political engagement inherently incomplete? Recently many universities have embraced the language of “civic engagement” but what does this phrase actually refer to? What kind of engagement with local communities is being promoted? This panel includes papers which explore a range of different political issues, examining the dynamic relationship between scholarship and activism.

“I agreed with Stalin”: The challenge of taking data seriously
Molly Andrews, University of East London

In my research with and on political activists, the “problem of politics” (my own and others) continually presents itself. Indeed, I am not alone in this. There are many scholars whose research is relevant to the social problems of their times who have written about the dilemmas which they face. In 1966 when Howard Becker gave his presidential address to the Society for the Study of Social Problems, which he called Whose Side are We On (published under the same title the following year), he was following in the footsteps of many before him, even while he set an agenda for generations to come. But while the problems Becker identified seemed straightforward, the reality I have encountered in the field has been rather more murky. What does it mean to be “on a side”? Is this a question of sympathy? Of purpose? Of praxis? How many sides are there? How many axis of difference? Using data from different projects I have undertaken with political activists, I will discuss some of the challenges I have faced, and how this has caused me to re-evaluate what I am doing when I invite someone to participate in my research.

Dilemmas of praxis: Race, sexuality and philanthrocapitalism in “revolting times”
Michelle Fine, The City University of New York Graduate Center

In this paper I want to address two dilemmas of praxis particularly troubling in these “revolting” times. First I will dive into Gramsci’s prophetic claim, “The crisis consists precisely in the fact that the old is dying and new cannot be born,” and interrogate with a cocktail of humility and chutzpa how White researchers engage with scholarship on racial (in)justice, and how participatory research with LGBTQ youth activists – who are contesting all social categories — both enlivens and makes difficult how we conceptualize research on/through categories that are dissembling, even as the bodies are being killed. Second, I want to trouble the current academic commodified fetish with “civic engagement” until faculty “cross the line” by reviewing a set of cases in the U.S. where public universities have failed to stand by their faculty, recruited as public intellectuals, who have “gone too far”. Rather than a deep analysis, this paper will be a provocative breezy but evidence-filled set of “tapas” designed to challenge us all to think through the political thickets of activist scholarship.

The jungle is here; the jungle is outside: University for all in the Calais refugee camp
Corinne Squire, University of East London

This paper explores the borders of education in relation to contemporary refugee issues in Europe, specifically addressing the informal “Jungle” camp in Calais, northern France, where UEL colleagues have since September 2014 taught an accredited Life Stories short course. The paper suggests, first, that this pedagogy apparently beyond the borders of the conventional university is in some ways precisely the terrain of the university and education more generally. Secondly, the paper argues that on this terrain, education can be seen to operate in a number of different directions for different stakeholders, refugees, teachers, other volunteers, associations, NGOs, and state agencies. Third, the paper disassembles “education” itself.

Feminism, the academy, and public intellectuals: Re-imagining an academic journal in perilous times
Suzanna Walters, University of East London

We are in a curious moment: over the past 40 years, feminism (some versions, in some locales) has become firmly established in the academy through women’s/gender studies programs and, more recently, has emerged as a contested site of both celebrity and popular embrace even as substantive feminist social transformations seem ever more distant.  Academic feminist journals, therefore, need to respond to multiple constituencies and sometimes conflicting needs for internal academic gatekeeping and outward facing engagement. At Signs, a venerable feminist journal, we have actively embraced this challenge with the launching of the Feminist Public Intellectuals Project, a multifaceted, social media savvy initiative designed to actively engage the world of feminist academic scholarship with the newly burgeoning world of feminist bloggers in the hopes of creating a more capacious and energetic public feminist praxis.

K2.2 Social media, activism and marginality
Larsen 106

Chair: Krista L. Goldstine-Cole, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Civic Mindedness: How currently disenfranchised men think about improving education
Krista L. Goldstine-Cole, Harvard Graduate School of Education

In the United States, one in 37 American adults has served time in a state or federal prison (Bonczar, 2003), leaving 2.5% of the voting age population ineligible to cast a ballot (Uggen, Shannon, Manza, 2012). Still, incarcerated men and their families are deeply affected by public policy issues ranging from housing to economic development, public assistance to education. In this interview study with 10 currently incarcerated men, participants offered sophisticated analysis of public school policy and governance, and offered sophisticated ideas for improving outcomes for the next generation of vulnerable children.

Civic health as public safety: Promoting informed citizenship through prison-based education
Abena Subira Mackall, Harvard Graduate School of Education

In this essay, I argue that the penal mandate to enforce public safety overlooks the penal system’s responsibility to foster civic well-being. I hold that intentionally developing civic well-being advances public safety because it results in: prisons being safer places in which to live and work, attenuated consequences of incarceration experienced by families of incarcerated individuals, and prison releasees being better prepared to civically reenter society. I further argue that within prisons, classrooms offer the best setting for promoting civic well-being. To conclude, I propose three modest initiatives to promote key aspects of active and informed citizenship in prisons.

The effects of imprisoning parents: Halting the intergenerational transfer of inequality
Jon D. Hicks, Holy Cross College; Alesha D. Seroczynski, University of Notre Dame

The U.S. incarceration rate is one of the highest in the world: 6.6% of Americans and 11% of men can expect to go to prison at some point in their lives. A majority of the over 2 million prisoners are parents of at least one minor child, and African-American children have a 25% chance of having at least one incarcerated parent. The negative effects of imprisonment on families are well documented; however, children need not suffer. Using overviews of current research, we will examine ways through which both governmental policies and the educational system can address and remedy their plight.

L2.2 Social, emotional and moral development
Gutman Conference Center Area 1

Chair: Luba Falk Feigenberg, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Making caring common in the media, schools, and college admissions
Rick F. Weissbourd, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Luba Falk Feigenberg, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Trisha Ross Anderson, Harvard Graduate School of Education

This presentation shares the latest initiatives from Making Caring Common (MCC), a project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education committed to supporting parents, educators, and community members as they raise children who are caring, empathic, responsible to their communities and committed to justice. We will describe three facets of our work: a media campaign aimed at reforming the college admissions process, a network of schools to build caring learning environments, and the evolution of our new youth campaign focused on engaging young people. Implications and questions for educators and researchers interested in children’s ethical development will be highlighted.