Concurrent Sessions 2.5: 3:00 PM – 4:30 PM

A2.5 Pedagogy, values and goals
Gutman Conference Center Area 1

Chair: Lyusyena Kirakosyan, Virginia Tech Institute for Policy and Governance/ Mais Diferenças

Educational legacy of the Rio 2016 Games: Exploring the Games’ impact on youth engagement
Lyusyena Kirakosyan, Virginia Tech Institute for Policy and Governance/ Mais Diferenças

The 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio will come to influence Brazil’s entire population, but the major impact is expected to be on children and youth. The paper examines educational programs offered in schools that aim to promote Olympic and Paralympic values, with a particular emphasis on identifying their impact on authentic youth engagement. The main assumption underlying such programs is their potential for creating a culture whereby children and youth will stay involved in their communities into their adulthood. The paper draws parallels between similar educational programs developed in Beijing (2008), Vancouver (2010), London (2012) and Rio (2016).

Moral learning between a phenomenological and a negative pedagogy perspective
Merete Wiberg, University of Aarhus

Moral learning in and outside educational settings might be described as incorporation of moral values in terms of moral feeling, experience and conscience. The phenomenon of moral learning in terms of children’s discovery of moral values and their maybe subsequently feeling of these values will be explored from a moral phenomenological perspective as represented by the philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann. Moral learning in an educational context, it will be argued, must be two-sided: In a positive pedagogical sense moral feelings must be encouraged. On the other hand a negative pedagogy is needed in order to encourage critical and reflective thinking.

Conceptualization and need of global citizenship education: Implication for teacher education
Vaibhav Govind Jadhav, Savitribai Phule Pune University

Global Citizenship Education is the covering all the aspect of human values. These values are more useful for sustaining the globe as our home and global citizenship education is able to develop understanding of global governance, social responsibilities, global issues and connections between global, national and local. In the first part of this article, the author is trying to focus on conceptual and thematic dimensions of global citizenship education. Further, the author argues that teacher education should implement process- productively to spread the value of global citizenship among the entire society with the help of curriculum and pedagogy for upcoming teacher generation.

B2.5 Development of values and purpose
Larsen 203

Symposium: Thorny issues in youth purpose research: Multidimensionality and beyond-the-self influences
Chair: Seana M. Moran, Clark University

Purpose keeps individuals “on track” prosocially with less need for external reinforcements, thus it is helpful for maintaining social responsibility and civic engagement. This session addresses persistent struggles researching youth purpose: (1) Using decision trees to analyze specific purpose contents based on Damon’s (2008) multidimensional definition, not just a general sense of purpose, in a more resource-efficient way. (2) Analyzing to what degree purpose’s beyond-the-self dimension relates to and/or interacts with actual prosocial behaviors and tendencies. (3) Analyzing to what degree purpose relates to the psychological experience of mattering to others.

Using decision trees to create multidimensional profiles of purpose
Matthew J. Bundick, Duquesne University; Seana M. Moran, Clark University

approaches offer greater dimensional precision but are resource intensive. Decision trees require items addressing subjective sense of purpose, purpose aim, and purpose dimensions to be assessed step by step. If a threshold is not reached for an earlier criterion, then subsequent criteria are not evaluated. Decision trees result in profiles. Comparing a test of a decision tree on US college student responses, we suggest how decision-tree analysis may be an efficient way for practitioners to discern underdeveloped dimensions and correlates of purpose in youth to determine targeted interventions.

Are purposeful students more altruistic?
Eliana Hadjiandreou, Pennsylvania State University; Seana M. Moran, Clark University

This correlational regression study with US college students explores how altruistic tendency to help others without social recognition was explained by endorsement of a religious life goal, past purpose-related prosocial actions, and whether the students’ purpose included all four dimensions of future intention, actual engagement, personal meaning, and expected beyond-the-self impact. Surprises include how self-defined purpose has a stronger effect than institution-supported religious life goal, and that past prosocial action decreases altruistic tendency, highlighting the complicated relationship between wanting to do good and enacting äóìdoing good.

How does youth purpose influence sense of mattering to others?
Cori Palermo, Clark University; Seana M. Moran, Clark University

This mediation model examines: How do American college students’ sense that they have a life purpose, endorsement of specific life purposes aimed to impact others positively, acting on that purpose, and self-efficacy to realize their purpose influence how much they perceive they matter to others? Mattering is a person’s evaluation of how much others attend to and are interested in the person, feel the person is important, and depend on or would miss the person.

C2.5 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall

Chair: Richard M. Lerner, Tufts University

An empirical investigation of philosophy as moral education
Charles W. Wright, College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University

The Philosophy Department at a Catholic-Benedictine liberal arts college seeks to inculcate four intellectual dispositions (‘virtues’) in its students: comfort with ambiguity, charitable reading, resisting the urge to settle for easy answers, and pleasure in the struggle with difficult ideas. The paper introduces a multi-year effort to document whether philosophy students develop these intellectual virtues to a greater extent than students in other disciplines. Three sources of evidence will be reviewed: statistically valid scales developed for this research, outcomes of focus group meetings, and alumni self-reports. This research has important implications for the contribution of liberal learning to moral development.

Applying integrative data analysis to assess character development
Kristina S. Callina, Tufts University; Sara K. Johnson, Tufts University; Richard M. Lerner, Tufts University

Burgeoning interest in character development has led to a proliferation of short-term, longitudinal studies. These data sets are limited in their ability to model character development trajectories due to low power and relatively brief time spans assessed. However, an approach termed integrative data analysis allows researchers to pool raw data across studies in order to fit one model to an aggregated data set. We will demonstrate the promises and challenges of this new tool for modeling character development across the first three decades.

Can virtue and character strength be measured?: The research trends and challenges in Korea
Son Kyung-Won, Seoul National University

This paper draws upon our experiences working on three research projects about measuring virtue and character. Since the multiple occurrence of suicide by bullying among students, South Korea has introduced several policies reinforcing character education. Several researchers have studied the current developmental status of youth character to seek the way to enhance the effectiveness of character education. Self- report character test tools using the normative items have been developed three times from 2012 through to 2015. These achievements are encouraging but there are several limitations regarding the validity and reliability of the measurements of character.

Measuring moral character in Chinese culture: A pilot study
Lu Yu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Joe Ngai, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Daniel Shek, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Jianwei Li, Tianjin Medical University

This study outlines the design and validation of a new self-reported Chinese Moral Character Questionnaire (CMCQ) measuring 12 moral characters in Chinese culture. Results based on 183 university students showed satisfactory internal consistency of each sub-scale (α ranged from 0.68 to 0.85). The most common characters reported were “trustworthiness” and “humility”, and the less prevalent ones included “self-discipline” and “integrity”. While no gender difference was identified, age was negatively related to “filial piety” and “diligence”. All characters were positively correlated with life satisfaction. The findings indicate that the CMCQ is a promising tool for measuring moral competence in Chinese culture.

D2.5 Narrative, story and history
Longfellow 319

Symposium: Teaching about the violent past in Colombia, United States and Spain
Chair: Angélica Padilla, University of Deusto

This symposium presents a qualitative comparative study of the experience and reflection of history teachers in Colombia, the United States, and the Basque Country (Spain) regarding the challenges and opportunities of teaching young people about the violent past of their respective societies. In particular, they reflect about their experience teaching about the Colombian current armed conflict, the forced migration of Indigenous people in the U.S., and the terrorist violence associated with the pro-independence movement in the Basque Country, and about how their pedagogical practices contribute or not to question, normalize or delegitimize violence and build sustainable cultures of peace.

Understanding political violence through history education: Research goals and methodological design of a qualitative comparative study
Angela Bermudez, University of Deusto; Alan Stoskopf, University of Massachusetts Boston

The research presented in this symposium is part of a larger study on Understanding Political Violence through History Education. Interviews and focus groups with teachers were conducted during phases 2 and 3 of the study, following an analysis of history education resources. This paper provides a common framework for the subsequent discussion of the remaining three papers, including the general goals of the study, and theoretical approach taken, and the sampling criteria for phases 2 and 3.

Teachers’ challenges and opportunities of peace education in contexts of political violence: The case of Colombia
Angélica Padilla, University of Deusto

This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative analysis of the pedagogical potential of teachers” narratives about their experience teaching the history of the current armed conflict and the possibilities they see to question and delegitimize violence.This analysis considers a) the challenges that history teachers in Colombia encounter when teaching about the current armed conflict from a perspective informed by non-violence, and b) the opportunities they see to face violence and recognize the damage caused by it. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of history teachers in Bogota and the region of Magdalena Medio in Colombia. The analysis provides ideas for citizenship education, towards non-repetition of violence and the construction of peace culture among youth.

Examining American history textbook representations and teacher understandings of political violence in “The Trail of Tears” narratives
Alan Stoskopf, University of Massachusetts Boston

This paper examines how a purposeful sample of high school history teachers in the United States (Boston and Chicago) understand, accept, resist, and/or interrogate textbook narratives pertaining to the forced migrations of Indian nations (commonly referred to as The Trail of Tears). While narratives of violence proliferate in national history textbooks, they often remain a hidden topic to the learner. Our research project brings to the surface this paradox in a way that allows teachers to critically reflect upon and discuss how their classroom practices shape their students’ understanding of their nation’s past encounters with collective violence.

E2.5 Theory and critique
Longfellow 228

Symposium: Moral learning and responsiveness in networks
Chair: Peter Levine, Tufts University

We learn morally by being responsive to others. That is how we build adequate moral worldviews. The virtue of responsiveness–which is especially important in some versions of liberalism–can be explored philosophically. It can also be modeled and measured empirically if individuals are understood as holding networks of ideas and arguments (“epistemic networks”) and interacting in social networks with people who have different ideas. This symposium combines a philosophical paper on responsiveness, an empirical paper that models discussions in network terms, and a paper that bridges the two.

Modeling moral thought in network terms
Peter Levine, Tufts University

Individuals’ moral views and political ideologies can be modeled as networks of beliefs and relations among them. Like other networks, moral worldviews have properties such as centrality, density, and clustering that are relevant to moral evaluation. When people discuss moral issues, they disclose portions of their networks, change some of their beliefs, and build one network (which may not be connected or coherent) for the group. This approach differs from major ethical theories and also from prevailing psychological methods for understanding and assessing research subjects’ moral opinions–notably, Moral Foundations Theory. It also has substantive normative implications. Constructed philosophical systems, such as Kantianism and utilitarianism, posit simple network structures, but most people accumulate moral beliefs and reasons one at a time and develop complex and irregular networks. When people discuss moral issues, they disclose portions of their networks, change some of their beliefs, and build one network (which may not be connected or coherent) for the group. Understanding reasoning and discussion in this way challenges prevailing psychological methods for understanding and assessing research subjects’ moral opinions–notably, Moral Foundations Theory. It also has substantive normative implications. For instance, Rawls assumed that people’s networks of moral ideas will become consistent and centralized as they reason, but in fact epistemic networks work better for moral deliberation if they are large and connected but not overly centralized or fully consistent. A liberal society can accommodate people who hold mutually incompatible principles as long as their networks are structured to allow them to be responsive to others.

The potential unity of epistemic and civic virtues
Winston C. Thompson, University of New Hampshire

This paper considers the potential category unity between two important virtue sets. Observing that many of the traits that lend themselves to the educational act of study are closely related to civic virtues characteristic of a vibrant political life, this paper investigates and ultimately challenges the distinction between those virtues traditionally categorized as “epistemic” or “civic”. Recognition of unity between these virtues requires additional attention to the moral dimensions of the politics of study and the pedagogical obligations of social life within liberal contexts. The paper focuses on the paradigmatic virtue of “responsiveness.”

Assessing deliberations as networks
Brendan Eagan, University of Wisconsin; David Williamson Shaffer, University of Wisconsin; Peter Levine, Tufts University

In order to provide more valid and reliable tools for assessing deliberation, we are developing a new model. In this model, an individual has a network of ideas and connections among these ideas prior to entering a discussion (the Epistemic Network). The individual also has a network of individuals whom she or he finds influential (the Social Network). Discussions can be modeled as disclosing aspects of one’s own Epistemic Network, understanding the other discussants’ Epistemic Networks, and changing one’s ideas as a result. We will present results from science policy discussions at two colleges.

F2.5 China: civic and moral education
Gutman 440

Symposium: China’s changing culture: Challenges for educational goals
Chair: Robert L. Selman, Harvard Graduate School of Education

China is in a state of change, with demands for either new, or modified, values, beliefs and practices. This has huge implications for education and for the expectations placed on young people. The papers in this panel address data on three key areas: how rural and migrant young people – a vulnerable category – perceive the goals of education; how teachers conceptualize ‘creativity’ and how they manage the cultural tensions around it; and how the intense pressures for academic achievement are experienced by socially privileged students compared to those with less social capital.

Meanings and Purposes of Education for Rural and Migrant Youth in Southern China
Xin Xiang, Harvard Graduate School of Education

China is widely seen as undergoing fundamental changes and transitions and changes in its moral world – from the premodern, agrarian, Confucian morality to the modern world of rationality. This paper examines this transition in everyday meaning-making processes among ordinary Chinese youth: through investigating how rural and migrant youth – who make up the majority of children population in China – make meaning of their own education, I seek to understand to what extent their accounts engage conceptions associated with Confucian ideals versus those associated with the modern rational ones.

Constructing being and belonging: How Chinese international students navigate academic stress, social support, and cultural bonding in US colleges
Siwen Zhang, Harvard Graduate School of Education

China is now one of the biggest sending countries of international students to American institutions of higher education. Many of them come with resources, knowledge, skills, and the ambition to raise the overall quality of life for themselves and their families. However, the growing discourse of anti-foreigner sentiment, along with the myriad challenges that come with living alone for the first time in a new culture, contribute to the academic and acculturative stress that students may experience. How do Chinese international students address such stress and seek social support for belonging? This review examines the existing literature of theories and models of acculturation and senses of belonging, and points to a research agenda that may support American institutions of higher education in responding to the influx of Chinese international students from an asset perspective.

Age of ambition or anxiety? Academic motivation and stress in Chinese schools
Xu Zhao, University of Calgary; Robert L. Selman, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Chengyi Xu, Harvard Graduate School of Education

This paper reports findings from a case study conducted in 2015 that investigated the sources of academic motivation and stress among Chinese youth. Based on in-depth interviews and focus groups with over 50 students, parents, and teachers from three schools, the study points to the major cultural forces (education system; cultural beliefs and practices; family SES) that shape Chinese students’ experience of education. It also reveals the different nature of academic stress for middle-class students attending high-achieving schools and working-class students attending non-high-achieving schools. For the former, it often involves an internalized motivation to achieve and succeed; for the latter, it is largely an external pressure to survive.

G2.5 Culture and context
Larsen 214

Chair: Greg Jobin-Leeds, Co-author, When we fight, we win!

When we fight, we win! Teaching about today’s social movements and the radical shifts in culture and consciousness
Greg Jobin-Leeds, Schott Foundation for Public Education and Co-author, When We Fight, We Win!; Carlos Rojas, Youth on Board and Boston Student Advisory Council; Jenny Sazama, Youth on Board and Boston Student Advisory Council; Dey Hernández-Vázquez, AgitArte artist; curator, art director and coauthor, WHEN WE FIGHT, WE WIN!; Jhalen Williams, YOUNG Coalition, student at South Boston Excel High School

Presenting WHEN WE FIGHT, WE WIN!: Twenty-First-Century Social Movements and the Activists That Are Transforming Our World, it’s teaching guide, videos, organizer trainings and related papers to capture the tactics and art of today’s movements; this panel will weave together:

  • clear lessons for students, teachers, professors and education activists on how to include social movements and art in their classes, organizations, and communities
  • provocative full-color images of paintings, posters, murals, puppetry, street theatre, and photographs
  • stories of Boston student walk outs, immigrant, anti-foreclosure and national activism
  • how students and teachers become active participants in creating history through transformative organizing, art, the intersection of social issues and cultural shifts.

H2.5.1 Media and curricula workshop
Gutman 303

TERF: A virtual platform to develop ethics and citizenship projects
Ulisses F. Araujo, University of Sao Paulo

TERF is a cloud-based 3D platform that uses collaborative spaces for sharing content and generating an environment for the co-creation of information and the reuse of data and knowledge gathered by the students in a workgroup. In this presentation, with participants connected to the internet through avatars in their own computer (anywhere), we want to show how TERF – designed to be used in distributed group work – can be applied to develop projects involving the school and communities in search of  solutions related to ethics and citizenship, aiming towards the development of moral values. Note: Because this session involves demonstrating software, please refer to this one-page handout that details what to bring and how to prepare.

H2.5.2 Media and curricula workshop
Gutman G05

New directions in moral psychology: Theory, research and practice
Dawn E. Schrader, Cornell University; Jess Matthews, Cornell University

This workshop is a dialogical session that reflects an historical embodiment of the definition of symposium—to revel in ideas and bring learned people together. The goal is to articulate the spectrum of topics and issues in the field and the methodologies required to address them in next wave of moral research, to further interdisciplinary collaboration in the study of morality, and to suggest comprehensive and inclusive research agendas that will help develop applications for real-world change in individuals, families, communities, and societies.

I2.5 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Longfellow 320

Symposium: Studies at the intersection of adolescent civic and academic development and teacher/school qualities
Chair: Dennis Barr, Facing History and Ourselves

The three papers in this symposium explore aspects of the interrelationship among adolescent civic and academic development and salient qualities of teachers and school settings. Two are longitudinal case studies of academic and civic development in schools that seek to foster high academic expectations, civic engagement and action. The third uses data from a large evaluation study to explore the relationship between teacher self-efficacy for fostering civic learning, and students’ actual civic learning and social/ethical awareness. All three studies reveal leverage points for supporting adolescent civic and academic growth. They further show the challenges teachers and youth face along the way.

How teacher efficacy beliefs about implementing civic education are related to students’ civic learning and social and ethical awareness
Ethan Lowenstein, Eastern Michigan University; Sooyeon Byun; Dennis Barr, Facing History and Ourselves

This study examines the relationship between teacher self-efficacy for fostering students’ civic dispositions and participation, social and ethical awareness and student’s actual learning in these domains. Through secondary analysis of data from a study involving 951 high school freshmen and sophomores and their 77 teachers from 48 schools in seven US regions, the study found significant positive relationships between four domains of teacher efficacy beliefs and six dimensions of students’ civic learning and social and ethical awareness. The implications of the efficacy scales for further research and the findings for teacher professional development will be presented.

A case study of civic development and sociocultural worlds in a divided society
Sarah Freedman, University of California Berkeley; Dennis Barr, Facing History and Ourselves; Zina Besirevič, University of California Berkeley; Karen Murphy, Facing History and Ourselves

This case study is part of a larger cross-national study of adolescent civic development in divided societies. We examine how Gabriela, a teenager born in the US to immigrant parents, develops as a civic actor in the context of varied sociocultural worlds during her four years of high school: her family, her mostly Latino community, and her school. These worlds intersected, creating sites of struggle and growth. We study Gabriela’s civic development through a cultural-historical lens that illuminates how individuals’ and their cultures are intertwined and interdependent. Gabriela’s case offers an in-depth understanding of the intertwining of individual and sociocultural development, and how a school can provide personalized, evolving supports for civic development.

Civic engagement and academic identity development in late high school and early college
Michael Nakkula, Penn Graduate School of Education; Abby Perry, Penn Graduate School of Education

J2.5 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Larsen G01

Chair: Bryan McAllister-Grande, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Indoctrinating freedom: Moral philosophy at Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, 1930s-1950s
Bryan McAllister-Grande, Harvard Graduate School of Education

During the 1930s and ’40s, educators created new curricular programs to inculcate democratic values. Few historians, however, have delved deeply into these programs and what was taught or conveyed. This paper examines how the “Big Three” — Harvard, Princeton, and Yale — revived the classical moral philosophy program that once framed the college curriculum. Far more than inculcation of democratic values, they promoted indoctrination of particular truths. This paper explores the origins, curricular ideas and the after effects of this surprising return to authoritative moral philosophy in American higher education and its legacy for today’s crisis of democracy.

Me, university, and the state: Chinese college students’ reasoning about the legitimacy of university regulations
Ran Zhang, Peking University

Education is not just a systematic way of knowledge transmission but also, and more importantly, it is a process for the development of critical thinking and civic engagement. By carefully analyzing students’ perceptions of the legitimacy of university regulations, this presentation aims to reveal how contemporary Chinese college students understand and construct their relationships with their institutions and the state, in the broader context of China’s move to rule of law and a system of mass higher education.

Student as engaged scholar; Egypt’s Copernican moment
Anthony G. Leone, American University in Cairo

The author of this article, a university educator in Egypt, before and after the revolution there, will lend his first hand account of the strategies and mechanism used by the university to meet the demands of allowing students to become civically engaged scholars. With a sort of case-study approach, the article will examine how a university in Egypt has endeavored to create partnerships between the community and the university by using faculty to engage students. The war against terrorism and the local political climate form a backdrop as story of students trying to find their own public voice unfolds.

K2.5 Social media, activism and marginality
Larsen 106

Symposium: Talking politics online: How young civic actors are using social media for participatory politics
Chair and Discussant: Howard Gardner, Harvard Graduate School of Education

In this symposium, researchers associated with the MacArthur Youth and Participatory Politics Research Network will explore how young activists are using social media to talk about politics and do civics. Presenters will share findings from qualitative research with 40 youth, ages 15-25, who routinely use social media for “participatory politics” (Kahne, Middaugh & Allen, 2015). The presentations will focus on several discrete aspects of online participation: how youths’ online participation reflects notions of moral and ethical responsibility; the discourse strategies young activists use to navigate political disagreements online; and how youth’s’ conceptions of good online dialogue square with their actions.

Good digital citizenship: Moral and ethical responsibility in online civic participation
Daniel T. Gruner, Claremont Graduate University

In an era of ubiquitous digital media, social networking platforms indeed provide practical venues for young people to amplify their civic voices, but the qualities of online relationships and digital communities in which discussions thrive are less understood. Building on work by Flores and James (2013) who suggest that youth consider both selfish and selfless implications of online behavior, this paper examines the extent to which the moral and ethical standards of online civic dialogue underlie a theoretical framework of Good Digital Citizenship. Not unlike Gardner’s (2013) notion of shared publics, or Parson’s (1951) community characterizations, digital communities are common spaces where individuals can ostensibly express opinions freely and interact with others.

Drawing on interview data from 40 young civic dialoguers and actors, I explore whether online participatory practices are prefaced on social responsibility and digital community membership, and if modalities of online civic engagement entail moral and ethical considerations for close and distant community members. Findings suggest that decisions to deploy dialogical moves and tactics are influenced by reflecting on tacit norms forged through repeated interactions within digital communities, and that online civic discussions are predicated on adherence to, or violations of, these norms. Importantly, youths’ memberships in broader social networks, in part, define their moral and ethical conceptions of online participatory politics and contribute to forming the ethical, and unethical, qualities of common digital spaces. Providing insight into the elements of Good Digital Citizenship can help educators support youth in crafting public online spaces for respectful and productive discourse.

The user has left the conversation: Disagreement and open-mindedness in the era of Facebook and Twitter
Ashley Lee, Harvard Graduate School of Education

In this study, I examine how young digital activists navigate moral conflicts and disagreements that arise in civic life online, and explore the expressive moves and rhetorical strategies they employ to engage and persuade others with different opinions. In a democracy, moral arguments are unavoidable; or rather, the functioning of a healthy democracy depends on open debates around differences. When young activists run into arguments arising from moral or fundamental differences online, what strategies do they employ to navigate and negotiate differences in opinions? Relatedly, I ask how open-minded these youth are in terms of seeking diverse opinions and audiences, and whether they are willing to examine or change their own opinions on certain issues. How (if at all) do their own efforts at open-mindedness relate to rhetorical strategies they use in their online conversations? Finally, I examine what moral and ethical considerations (if any) inform their decisions to enter, persist in, or leave disagreements.

My analysis is informed by modes of deliberative discourse. At the core of Habermas (1991)’s “public sphere” is dispassionate, rational deliberative discourse of a reasoning public. Bakhtin (1981) and Levinas (1988) further underscore dialogical ethics, which they locate in äóìan open and ongoing obligation to respond to the other, rather than a static march toward some philosophical end or conclusionäó_ (Nealon, 1998). Finally, I adopt Gardner (2015)”s concept of disinterestedness as a condition to which open minds aspire in a democratic society.

Preliminary findings suggest that youth are well-versed in rational deliberative discourses, which stress marshaling evidence, and constructing arguments and counter-arguments. However, they appear to struggle when it comes to forms of relational deliberation that emphasize reciprocity and meaningful engagement with the other in situations where moral differences arise. Survey results further point to potential gaps in educational support structures that prepare youth for addressing disagreements, which are critical to participating in a democratic dialogue.

The good dialogue gap: Aspirations versus reality in online civic discourse
Carrie James, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Margaret Mullen, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Megan Cotnam-Kappel, University of Ottawa

Public discourse around civic issues is key to democracy. In the past young people”s voices, particularly those under the age of majority may not have been heard as often or as loud as their older compatriots, but today’s youth can easily access digital public spaces that present opportunities for all to contribute. Previous research by the authors (Weinstein et al., 2015) highlight challenges civically active youth face when participating in online dialogue related to issues they care about. Worries over negative feedback or implications for future careers lead some active youth to reduce this aspect of their engagement or withdraw entirely.

In this paper, we explore civic youth’s’ conceptions of good dialogue and compare these notions to their practice of online discourse regarding civic and political issues. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with a small sample of civic youth who engage in civic discussions on social media, we explore their beliefs about the features of good and not-so-good online discussions; consider the statements participants make about good and not-so-good online discussion experiences; and examine artifacts (screenshots) of such encounters. In brief, our findings show that participants acknowledge the importance of civil civic discourse and have clear conceptions of good and bad online dialogue, though not all youth have the same conceptions. The artifacts of described encounters reveal variation in the extent to which civic youth employ their ascribed features of good dialogue. We discuss the significance of these findings and implications for civic education.

L2.5 Social, emotional and moral development
Gutman Conference Center Area 3

Chair: Michael D. Burroughs, Penn State University

Envisioning the experience of others: Moral imagination and empathetic scope
Natalie M. Fletcher, Concordia University

Despite the popularity of empathy in educational initiatives, the challenges associated with its cultivation tend not to receive enough attention. This paper strives to clarify the concept of empathy for civic engagement by examining the challenge of “narrow empathetic scope,” drawing on neo-Aristotelian virtue theory. Using the Philosophy for Children model as a case study, the paper explores how moral imagination, as a precursor to empathy, may assist with cultivating children’s practical wisdom by enabling them to visualize contexts they have not yet encountered and broaden the moral lens through which they assess their lived experience.

[Canceled] Eating out virtues: Practical approaches of a Taiwanese childcare
Chiuchu Chuang, University of North Carolina at Pembroke; Qiaohua Wang, Zhejiang Normal University

The 21st century, with abundant materials and cutting-edge technology, is the most advanced era in human history. However, almost half of the global population suffer from poverty and lack food, clean water and essential supplies. This paper presents the daily routines of a Montessori child development center in Taiwan that foster young children’s learning, development and moral character. Choosing and serving their own food during center and lunch times, young children exercise their motor and executive function skills, as well as utilize decision-making, self-serving, responsibility-taking, and many more life skills daily as moral citizens in this modern global village.

Philosophical ethics in early childhood
Michael D. Burroughs, Penn State University; Tugce B. Arda Tuncdemir, Penn State University

The Philosophical Ethics in Early Childhood (PEECh) project aims to (1) understand preschool children’s ability to recognize and distinguish ethical concepts and (2) explores the effectiveness of children’s literature and extension activities for fostering ethical development. We will discuss our ethics education study with preschool children during which we conducted a 10 week intervention centering on fairness, empathy, personal welfare, and inclusion versus exclusion of peers. Preliminary results show developments in our intervention group’s ability to respond to ethical questions and increased use of justification terms to support responses.

Investigation in the discovery mode: An intervention for social and emotional development in the classroom setting
Juliana Castro, Universidad de los Andes

Providing spaces for the construction of peaceful coexistence is an important task for education, especially in Colombia, a country with a long history of violence and political conflict. Understanding the cultivation of social and emotional skills, as well as citizenship education, becomes fundamental for teachers, investigators and administrators that support children’s healthy development from the school setting.

We explore the effect of a 4-months intervention, in a grade one classroom, that targets social processes related to peer and teacher-student relationships and to the establishment of structure in the classroom. Although moderate in scale, this quasi experiment showed interesting results.

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