A2.6 Pedagogy, values and goals
Symposium: The purpose of teaching in democratic citizenship education
Chair: Wiel Veugelers, University of Humanistic Studies
Societies are searching for their own moral responses to global developments and creating educational support systems. Different concepts of moral education, character education and citizenship education are used. These concepts have in common that they want to support the identity of youngsters; they differ in the framework they are using, in cultural orientations, and pedagogical goals and methods. The concept of democracy is central in our academic educational work. In this international symposium we will address pedagogical purposes and educational possibilities. The focus will be on teachers’ goals and practices. We link scientific perspectives from psychology, sociology, philosophy and pedagogy.
Education for purposeful teaching
Kirsi Tirri, University of Helsinki; Elina Kuusisto, University of Helsinki
Teachers around the world should be educated in the specific competencies that make purposeful and purpose-oriented teaching possible. We present a case-study approach which is intended to promote purposeful teaching in different contexts. Our philosophy is based on educative teaching with the goal of instructing autonomous individuals who also contribute to society through their gifts and talents. We present a didactic approach to purpose education adapted from moral education for teachers (Toom, Husu, & Tirri, 2015). Our goal is to provide theoretical bases and concrete suggestions for educating students for purpose that would serve colleagues around the world.
Pedagogy for critical-democratic citizenship
Wiel Veugelers, University of Humanistic Studies
Citizenship can have different orientations. We argue that for a democratic society and engaged citizenship it is important to develop a critical-democratic citizenship in which autonomy development and social concern and social justice are linked. This kind of citizenship asked for reflective, dialogical and democratic learning processes. In this paper we want to show emerging interesting developments, in theory and in practice, of more critical-democratic citizenship practices, and what this means for teachers knowledge, skills and attitudes. With the paper we hope to encourage and to equip teachers for this more transformative educational purpose of their pedagogical work.
Challenges and opportunities in education for democratic citizenship
Sigrun Adalbjarnardottir, University of Iceland
Under the umbrella of democratic values, one essential challenge in education is promoting young people’s civic engagement. As teachers and principals play a key role in school improvements, the teaching profession for today, and tomorrow will be reflected upon with a focus on three issues: The importance of (1) cultivating young people’s civic engagement with a special focus on fostering their social awareness, including interpersonal competence, ethical awareness, and emotional growth. (2) strengthen teachers‘ and principals‘ educational visions and build professional capital in education. (3) enhancing teachers’ identity as professionals, with a focus on self-respect and respect for the teaching profession.
The Trump trap: The ethics and aims of civic engagement in an era of economic disparity
Joel Westheimer, University of Ottawa
More than 60 years ago, former Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis is purported to have warned that: “We can have democracy in this country or we can have great wealth concentrated in the hands of a few, but we can’t have both.” If he was right, then democracy may be threatened. The statistics are now well-known. The highest 1% of income earners now controls more than a third of the nation’s wealth and almost half of all investment capital. Globally, economic disparities have widened dramatically. How should we think about teaching civic engagement ethically amidst these rapidly expanding disparities?
B2.6 Development of values and purpose
Chair: Almudena Juanes, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Chinese adolescents’ conceptions of teacher’s authority and their relations to rule violations in school
Jianjin Liu, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
Studies in social cognitive domain theory show that children and adolescents’ conceptions of parents and teachers vary in accordance with social domains. Adolescents view moral issues, conventional issues and prudential issues as legitimately subject to parents and teachers’ authority. However, they increasingly view personal and multifaceted issues as personal and beyond the authority of adults. Adolescents’ perceptions of authority may predict their rule violations in different domains. The purpose of current study is to explore Chinese adolescents’ perceptions of teacher’s authority and their relations to rule violations in school, and give some suggestions to moral and rule education in schools.
Social justice representations in Spanish and Argentinian primary school students.
Almudena Juanes, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Vanesa Sainz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Antonio Maldonado, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Liliana Jacott, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
This research explores children´s conceptions of primary education about Social Justice in Madrid and Buenos Aires (a total of 970 students divided in 4th and 6th grade from four public schools in each city), comparing possible differences by grade, gender or country. The instruments used were a questionnaire and an interview, which consist of a set of dilemmas about hypothetical situations. The main results obtained in the questionnaires show statistically significant differences by grade, gender and country of participants with respect to the dimensions of recognition and representation as well as in the global index of social justice.
The need to care: Students’ perceptions on teacher’s caring behaviour
Ilhavenil Narinasamy, Sri Aman Girl’s School; Aravindan Kalisri Logeswaran, Multimedia University
Research on teacher’s caring behaviour and teachers-students relationships pertaining to care is abundant. However, studies on students’ perceptions of teacher’s caring behaviour is scarce, especially from the adolescents’ point of view even though caring behaviour is shown to be an integral part of any school system. This quantitative study examined the validity of a questionnaire that was constructed based on Nodding’s Ethics of Care, hence a survey instrument was administered to 296 students of fourth and fifth formers in a Malaysian Secondary School. A Preliminary outcome revealed good reliability readings. This study also discussed future directions.
C2.6 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall
Symposium: Traits and practices of effective character education school leaders
Chair: Brian McCauley, Wasatch Academy
Little scientific attention has been paid to the role of school leaders in effective schooling for character development, despite the broader educational emphasis on this critical factor in school success. This symposium will present 4 interrelated studies of character education leadership. Together they report the significant relation of a set of key leadership characteristics, leadership practices, and implementation of character education practices on student development and achievement.
Effective character education practices
Brian McCauley, Wasatch Academy
This study examined research-based studies on which strategies and practices have been found to be effective in developing intellectual, moral, performance, and civic character in students in schools. A new measure, the Effective Character Education Score (ECES), was created to measure performance data (academic, behavior, attendance), climate data (parent, student, staff), and character education recognitions or awards. Fifty strategies or practices were identified as being effective by the studies and meta-analyses or syntheses examined. These fifty were reduced to a new taxonomy of 16 effective practices. The ECES was found to be reliable and related to a set of leadership characteristics and student and school outcomes.
The relation of transformational leadership to effective character education
Amy Johnston, University of Missouri-St. Louis
In this study, the relation of Transformational Leadership to character education practices and to students” character development were examined. The project used a mixed-methods approach to study the relationships among character education leadership, character education practices, and school and student outcomes. Measurable outcomes include performance data (academic, behavior, attendance), climate data (parent, student, staff), and character education recognitions or awards. Significant correlations were found between transformational leadership and performance and climate data, and to the use of evidence-based practices. This work proposes a paradigm shift for effective school leadership.
Vulnerable leadership: Definition and relation to effective character education
Kevin Navarro, The College School
In this study, the concept of Vulnerable Leadership (VL) was developed along with a new measure. The relations of VL to character education practices and to students” character development were examined. The project used a mixed-methods approach to study the relationships among character education leadership, character education practices, and school and student outcomes. Measurable outcomes include performance data (academic, behavior, attendance), climate data (parent, student, staff), and character education recognitions or awards. The VL measure was found to be reliable and to fit the conceptual model. Significant correlations were found between VL and performance and climate data, and the use of effective practices.
Professional growth leadership: Definition and relation to effective character education
Julie Frugo, Premier Charter School
D2.6 Narrative, story and history
Chair: Janie V. Ward, Simmons College
Challenging the friendship orthodoxy: Examining the role of race in cross-racial interactions in college
Janie V. Ward, Simmons College; Tracy Robinson-Wood, Northeastern University; Karen Craddock, Wellesley College
This paper reports on findings from an empirical study exploring black female undergraduates’ interracial friendships and asks if these relationships encourage black women’s connections to interpersonal and professional networks that are tied to social mobility. Black female college students’ relational lives; how friendships are described, the role of race and class in relationships, its impact on identity development and the perceived effect of women’s interracial relationships on professional success challenge the friendship orthodoxy and question the role of colorblindness in cross racial intimacy among women.
Group membership identity centrality and relation to self-esteem and self-efficacy
Eric S. Marx, Stephens College; Ashley Landrum
This study examined the relationship between group identity and self-esteem and self-efficacy for majority vs. minority cultural group members. Eighty participants each completed the phrase “I am . . .” 20 times; responses were coded for percentage of statements related to group membership, percentage of group statements referring to naturally occurring groups, percentage of group statements referring to chosen groups, and presence (or not) of at least one statement about ethnicity, sexuality, gender, and religion. Among majority group participants, statements about sexuality were positively correlated with self-efficacy; among minority group participants, statements about ethnicity were negatively correlated with trait self-esteem.
Moral narratives and moral development in Colombian young children
Olga L. González-Beltrán, Universidad de los Andes; Carolina Maldonano-Carreño, Universidad de los Andes; Roberto Posada-Gilède, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Although a wealth of studies have investigated the relation of violence and poverty with children’s development, a deficit-centered perspective has prevailed. In Colombia the few existing studies have privileged a trauma or deficit perspective without considering the links between violence and poverty with the constitution of social relationships. This presentation explores the study of narratives as an alternative way to understand relations between adverse social conditions and moral development in young children. In addition, it presents a research design in the context of early childhood education settings to show the challenges of studying these issues in the Colombian context.
Using capabilities approach to examine civic achievement gap
Scot A. Wilson, Indiana University
The Capabilities Approach offers important insights into social, economic, and educational inequalities, and yet it is underutilized in a U.S. context. In this paper, I use the Capabilities Approach to examine the civic achievement gap between students of higher socioeconomic status and lower socioeconomic status, and between white students and students of color, particularly black and Latino youth. The Capabilities Approach is useful for showing how school, community, and family environment shapes students’ sense of democratic faith and political efficacy and for showing the ways in which social arrangements make civic engagement easier for some and more difficult for others.
E2.6 Theory and critique
Symposium: Race and the challenges of civic education
Chair: Winston Thompson, University of New Hampshire
This session deals with different responses to the challenge to civic education of the continuing racial injustice globally and within the US and South Africa. Thompson explores educating students into and about their racial identities, looking at both epistemic and ontological benefits and limitations. Perina considers global racial domination using a de-colonial framework to explore educational challenges of dominant and subordinate knowledge, dissemination, and authority. Swartz proposes (not only for South Africa) a framework of recognizing oppression, acknowledging (white) complicity, and proposing change. Blum compares South Africa and the US with respect to the alleged civic ideal of race blindness.
Ethical considerations in the pedagogy, process, and product of forming a racial identity
Winston Thompson, University of New Hampshire
This presentation considers the pedagogical questions of racial identity formation, focusing on two streams of inquiry: 1) investigations into the ethicality of pedagogical processes towards forming a racial identity and 2) investigations into the ethicality of pedagogical aims regarding the racial identity formed. In broad form, these attend to the pedagogical character of race to ask: How ought we teach one another (and/or ourselves) to inhabit racial identities, given the epistemological and ontological possibilities it encourages or eclipses? What pedagogical obligations might one possess relative to the processes and products of these endeavors?
Race, Epistemology (of ignorance) and the Ethics of Knowledge Production and Dissemination
Mickaella Perina, University of Massachusetts Boston
In this presentation I argue that taking civic engagement seriously today requires that institutions of higher education and educators examine and provide ways to respond to structural forms of domination at play in processes of knowledge production and dissemination. This imperative presents a set of civic challenges, constraints and opportunities for education. Calls to decolonize knowledge have been made and several conceptual frameworks have been proposed to achieve such goal; it is the responsibility of educators and institutions to respond to the criticism of a production of imperial Eurocentric knowledge and to take part in the construction of an alternative.
Anti-racist (moral) education: A review of approaches, impact and theoretical underpinnings over the past 15 years
Sharlene Swartz, South Africa Human Sciences Research Council
We remain far from obliterating racial oppression and the unearned privilege whiteness confers. This paper reports on a review of 15 years of academic scholarship concerned with anti-racist education, to establish the definitions, aims and geo-origins of anti-racist education drawn on, the theoretical frameworks underpinning these, the methods used in education efforts, and their intended impact. It concludes with implications for moral education in classroom and community contexts and advocates for anti-racist moral education that comprise three interconnected components – making visible systemic oppression (visibilising), recognising personal complicity in oppression through unearned privilege (recognising) and developing strategies to transform structural inequalities (strategizing).
Color-blindness and non-racialism as civic ideals
Larry Blum, University of Massachusetts Boston
“Color-blindness” in the US and “non-racialism” in South Africa represent similar yet importantly different civic ideals. In both nations they represent guidelines for individual behavior; guidelines for public policies; and a vision (or component thereof) of an ideal society. All three can be appropriately taught in a civic education program. Color blindness is almost entirely worthless as a civic ideal and functions in the US primarily to deny the influence of race on citizens’ life chances. In partial contrast, non-racialism in South Africa incorporates a concern for racial justice. Yet both fail to recognize value in black identity.
G2.6 Culture and context
Chair: Andrew C. Garrod, Dartmouth College
Ubuntu as a tenet of an inter-faith moral education in Namibia
Olga A. Bialostocka, South Africa Human Sciences Research Council
This study focuses on the ethics education of the Namibian and South African school curricula. Of interest are the proposed educational themes, not least against the background of the earlier struggles against racism in these countries. Tentative results point to the cultural/societal embedding as being of importance. Curricula from one or two Canadian and American states are provided for comparison, as are curricula analyses from the Nordic countries.
Ethics education in Namibian and South African school policy documents compared to North American and Scandinavian ones
Karin Sporre, Umeå University; Olof Franck, Gothenburg University
What may be learnt in ethics education, and what conceptions of ethics can be identified in school curricula? Where in curricula does ethics find its place and what kinds of ethical competencies show forth?
The social construction of culture
Thomas E. Wren, Loyola University Chicago
I offer a philosophical/social constructionist account of culture that tracks today’s more complex differentiations within the increasingly fuzzy boundaries of cultures. Through these differentiations we (especially our youth) are moving into a new life world in which each person has his/her own own mix of values and symbols. Cultural diversity has become a de facto culture in its own right. The old model of a self-contained symbol system is withering away: the concept of culture will still have its uses — but only as what Nietzsche called a “vital lie.”
Transformation and civic engagement in the Marshall Islands
Andrew Nalani, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Andrew C. Garrod, Dartmouth College
Transformative Education, an approach to learning pioneered by American Sociologist, Jack Mezirow and expanded on by other scholars, has been applied in various educational contexts–most notably adult learning. This paper argues that transformative learning, fostered through the process of reflection, can lead to the development of social-cultural awareness in beginning U.S. teachers in a culture markedly different from their own. Their placement in the Marshallese social and cultural landscape impacts these teachers’ thoughts, beliefs and values. Drawing on ten reflective case studies, we explore the transformations undergone by these teachers, and in some cases, their increased level of civic engagement.
H2.6 Media and curricula workshop
Youth-led participatory action research in Cuba
Gioel Gioacchino, University of Sussex/ Recrear International
In participatory-action research (PAR), processes are as valuable as outcomes. Between 2014 and 2015, Recrear International, a small Canadian youth-led organization, designed a research process to explore Cuban’s youth knowledge on Climate Change adaptation. This paper discusses the different dimensions of the youth-led methodology utilized, which involved 10 youth researchers and more 75 young people across the three cities. The paper puts particular stress on reflecting over the moral dimensions of collaborating across ideologies, political paradigms and cultures. This work has implications for understanding youth research and PAR as a form of civic engagement in and of itself.
I2.6 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Chair: Marvin W. Berkowitz, University of Missouri-St. Louis
An evaluation of ‘Bridge to Success’ program
Peter T. Kingori, Kenya Methodist University; Marvin W. Berkowitz, University of Missouri-St. Louis
Numerous organizations from across the country have invested their resources in the provision of education sponsorship to bright but financially disadvantaged students. A case example is Education For All Children (EFAC) which implements a “Bridge to Success’ program. EFAC have tailor-made its support programs in a way that it includes the character based training, community service and mentorship. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate how “Bridge to Success” program has impacted students’ (1) character and pro-social behaviors, (2) ability to make sound moral decisions and (3) avoid risky behaviors, (4) leadership development and (5) social-emotional competencies.
Middle school mediation as civic engagement
Jessica S. Gosnell, St. Ambrose University; Linda M. Schneider, Quad Cities Mediation Services, Inc.
In 2014, a partnership was formed between St. Ambrose University and Quad City Mediation Services to provide mediation for students in grades 6-8 for the local community school district. 155 students have been served through mediations that brought in family and community members to address issues that had grown to impact the neighboring areas. This collaboration involves a three-tier focus, providing mediation experience for community volunteers, application for university students in justice and peace studies and modeling for middle school students’ non-violent conflict resolution. Applications and future prospects for this type of program will be discussed.
Promoting diverse civic engagement approaches: Lessons from classroom-based action civics
Alison K. Cohen, University of California Berkeley; Sarah Andes, Generation Citizen; Arielle Jennings, Generation Citizen; Jason C. Fitzgerald, Wagner College; Parissa J. Ballard, University of California Berkeley
In this presentation, we will explore how teaching action civics can help nurture and grow students’ civic identities and appreciation of diverse forms of civic engagement, drawing primarily from classroom observations and semi-structured interviews of classes involved in Generation Citizen, an action civics organization. Students participating in Generation Citizen classes work together to take action on an issue of interest in their communities. In this presentation, we highlight several different ways students have demonstrated civic engagement as they each interpret the same curricular guidelines: research, relationships, education, advocacy, protest, and movement-building.
Six values of service-learning: A model for engagement and education
Jeremy Leeds, Center for Community Values and Action, Horace Mann School
Horace Mann School’s Service-learning program will be in its tenth year in the 2016-17 academic year. The program values are:
- Relationships and community
- Collaboration and continuity
- Understanding wider contexts
- Creativity and initiative
- Knowledge of content; room for discovery
- Change as a goal
This paper will show how these six values have changed the school conversation around engagement with the wider community. The values have moved the place of community engagement closer to the center of the life of the school. Examples of individual student engagement, and innovative program development, will be presented.
K2.6 Social media, activism and marginality
Symposium: Promoting cross-cultural engagement in the digital age: Promising practices
Chair and Discussant: Liz Dawes Duraisingh, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education
This symposium shares promising practices gleaned from an international online learning community designed to promote cross-cultural inquiry and exchange among diverse youth. The first paper explores the role of slow looking and listening in helping participants move beyond first impressions or “single stories” about other cultures. The second investigates the promises and challenges of online exchange, highlighting a “dialogue toolkit” designed to support youth to interact more thoughtfully and substantively with one another than might be typical of social media. The third reports on a pilot curriculum designed to engage diverse youth around the potentially sensitive topic of human migration.
The role of slow looking and listening in cross cultural inquiry and exchange
Shari Tishman, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Susannah Blair, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education
A core learning goal of Out of Eden Learn is to slow down to observe the world carefully and to listen attentively to others, and the curriculum includes many opportunities for students to do so. Many students report enthusiasm for the “slow” dimension of the program, and this enthusiasm is reflected in their work and in their exchanges with one another. This paper reports on research that examines what exactly it is that students find compelling about “slow:” What do they see themselves doing and what are they valuing–when they slow down to look and listen closely?
Going beyond the like button: Encouraging meaningful, respectful online discourse among diverse youth
Carrie James, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Aly Kreikemeier, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Online spaces provide powerful venues for intercultural exchange. Yet, the tendency to connect with like-minded others undermines potentials for dialogue across difference. Therefore, supporting youth to engage with individuals leading different lives from their own is essential. The Out of Eden Learn project supports youth to exchange stories and perspectives with youth from different parts of the world. In this paper, we explore the importance of dialogue across difference, discuss opportunities and challenges introduced by online tools, describe how we’ve sought to support such dialogue; and consider initial findings regarding how youth are engaging with one another.
Engaging youth around a major issue of our time: Navigating the topic of human migration
Sarah Sheya, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Emi Kane, Abundance Foundation/Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Liz Dawes Duraisingh, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education
This paper presents findings from a pilot online curriculum designed to engage a diverse group of high school students located across the world around the sensitive and politicized topic of migration. Young people were invited to (1) slow down to listen carefully to various migration stories and to one another, (2) explore and reflect on their own or community’s connections to migration, (3) create multimedia work including resources designed to help newly-arrived migrants to their communities, and (4) examine the media’s role in helping shape public perceptions and responses to contemporary migration. Student work and survey responses will be shared.
L2.6 Social, emotional and moral development
Chair: Nancy Nordmann, National Louis University
Is socio-emotional development correlated with cognitive development among children?
Kerem Coskun, Artvin Coruh University
The present study aims to investigate correlation between development of socio-emotional skills and transition from intellectual reality to visual reality. Therefore, it was designed in correlational research. Research sample included 120 primary school children. Data was collected through Facial Emotion Recognition and Empathy Test developed by Coskun (in review), and a rating scale developed by the researchers. Findings of the research indicated that correlation coefficient between the variables is .56. Furthermore linear regression model explains .31 of the variance. Findings of the research are going to be discussed through Piaget’s moral development theory and Luquet’s theory.
Moral foundations theory (MFT) and moral developmental theory: The power of integration
Nancy Nordmann, National Louis University
Moral Foundations Theory and moral developmental theory are thoroughly addressed in the 2013 Special Issue of the Journal of Moral Education and the range of salient issues are cogently outlined by Bruce Maxwell and Darcia Narvaez in the Introduction to the issue. This presentation proposes to identify the usefulness of developmental theory regarding MFT which has been overlooked by MFT, which is incorporated but minimalized in MFT and which is related to emerging issues, and recommends the power of integration. Five areas are noted: levels of analysis, developmental processes in MFT, emergence of structures, personhood vs. personality and moral technologies.
Rational reconstructions of justice reasoning modelled by an Overlapping-Waves-Model
Jan Boom, Utrecht University
The empirical inadequacy Kohlberg’s stages of moral development should not be the final verdict. Stages should have been construed as rational reconstructions. Empirical predictions following from theory were unrealistic, sophisticated analysis techniques were seldom applied. Moral development can be construed as movement along a Latent Developmental Dimension and moral competence characterizes the position of an individual along this dimension. The use of certain stages rises with development, reaches its height, and then decreases. Focusing on stage-use makes it possible to compare the multitude of stages along one dimension, at the same time cultural, contextual, and individual differences can be accommodated.
The development of Korean children’s and adolescents’ concepts of social convention
Allegra J. Midgette, University of California Berkeley; Jeeyoung Noh, University of Maryland; In Jae Lee, Seoul National University of Education, Larry Nucci, University of California Berkeley
Previous research in the US revealed that children and adolescents’ understandings of social convention move through an adolescent phase “negating” convention (Turiel, 1983). This study examined whether this developmental pattern occurs in the Korean context. To examine this we interviewed 64 Korean participants in three age groups of 9-10 years (Mage= 10.1 years), 12 -13 years (Mage= 13.2 years), and 15-16 years (Mage= 15.8 years). Contrary to our expectations, findings revealed that Korean children go through the same oscillating developmental trajectory as American children, suggesting that periods of negation of convention can be generalized to children in traditional cultural settings.
SIG2.6: Special Interest Group
Special interest group: Social conflict, violence and peace education
Silvia Diazgranados, Harvard Graduate School of Education
We invite you to join the first open meeting of the Special Interest Group (SIG) on Social Conflict, Violence and Peace Education. The goal of the SIG is to bring together AME members who, coming from different fields of inquiry, share an interest in conducting research and/or advancing innovative educational practices related to issues of social conflict, violence and peace education. This first meeting will be an opportunity to get to know other people with similar interests, learn about what different members would want from the SIG, identify key activities or strategies to strengthen the group within AME, and begin to have some deeper discussions regarding the meaning and scope of “peace education.”