A3.5 Pedagogy, values and goals
Educating for values/morality/character: What direction should be taken? (Sponsored by the Journal of Moral Education)
Chair and Discussant: Brian Gates, University of Cumbria
Darcia Narvaez, University of Notre Dame; Ulisses Araujo, University of Sao Paulo; Ann Higgins-D’Alessandro, Fordham University; Doret de Ruyter, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Susana Frisancho, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; Ewa Nowak, University of Poznan; Gerhard Minnameier, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main
The world is undergoing rapid change. Should educators of values/morals/character alter their approach, topics or practices? Members of the board of the Journal of Moral Education discuss their answers to this question. The presenters represent different viewpoints, nationalities and backgrounds. Topics discussed included dealing with new forms of interaction, hospitableness in an era of vast migration, respect in a time of polarization, interculturalism that includes indigenous perspectives, the need for whole-school, whole-curriculum approaches, Handouts will be provided. The audience will be invited into the discussion.
B3.5 Development of values and purpose
Chair: Sigrun Adalbjarnardottir, University of Iceland
Civic responsibility in a changing world: Young people’s perspectives
Ragny Gudjohnsen, University of Iceland; Sigrun Adalbjarnardottir, University of Iceland
Changes in young people’s civic participation have captured the attention of scolars and been the subject of theoretical discourse. Debates have also been on whether participation changes are rooted in civic value changes. It is therefore important to examine young people’s views towards civic participation and values. The study’s aim is to examine young people’s views (21, aged 14 and 18) on civic responsibility. Findings indicated that the young people understood civic responsibility within the umbrella of the good citizenship concept. Various perspectives on how they found this value important both for society and the citizens will be presented.
Fathers’ pedagogical vision in relation to their adolescents’ views on civic engagement
Hrund T. Ingudóttir, School of Education, University of Iceland; Sigrun Adalbjarnardottir, University of Iceland
This qualitative study, which is a part of a larger research project: Young people’s civic engagement in a democratic society, explores fathers’ pedagogical visions, including their ethical values, and how they get reflected in their aims and perceived actions. The participants were 23 fathers of teenagers aged 13 and 16. Further, we explore how the fathers’ pedagogical visions get reflected in their children’s perspectives on civic engagement.
Quantum virtue and cognitive psychology—New foundations for moral education
Daniel J. Marangoni, Oklahoma State University
Virtue ethics has had a wonderful resurgence of interest in the past decades. Although the interest has been most philosophical, there has been an increased concern with how centuries of philosophical dialogue on morality connects to what has been discovered about cognition and human potential. Many of those working in the field of virtue ethics have worked to connect virtue to decision making and cognition. Researchers working in social psychology, though, have undercut this premise. This discussion uses the mathematics of quantum mechanics as a proof for virtue ethics. Experimental psychology is then used as a derivative proof.
C3.5 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall
Chair: Kerry John Kennedy, The Hong Kong Institute of Education
Fostering spiritual development: The guru and the yogic path to the soul
Lynn Hickey Schultz, TriYoga Boston
Yogis undergo profound changes in their spirituality and interpersonal relationships. In the Western psychological literature, spiritual development is conceived of as an outward orientation, an evolution of meaning-making. In contrast, in yogic philosophy, spiritual development is a journey inward toward the soul—universal consciousness. I argue that spiritual development occurs when discrimination overrides dysfunctional patterns in the ego and stills the mind. Spiritual development is fostered in when more advanced yogis with mature social perspective coordination model the discriminative intelligence they use interpersonally and spiritually, leading them to touch the soul and live in the present authentically, justly, and kindly.
Religious literacy, moral recognition, and strong relationality
Michael J. Richardson, Brigham Young University
Over the last two decades, proposals for addressing religious illiteracy in American public education seem to have resulted in little practical progress. Recent political rhetoric seems to suggest that problems associated with religious illiteracy might be increasing in America rather than decreasing. This theoretical paper addresses the possibility that philosophical assumptions underlying these proposals may undermine their efficacy for achieving their own moral purposes—or doom the proposed projects before they begin. Alternative philosophical assumptions are described, which may provide better justification for such proposals, and significantly alter the ways in which religious literacy might be addressed in public schools.
The impact of religion on Hong Kong students’ citizenship development
Hin Wah Chris Cheung, The Hong Kong Institute of Education; Kerry John Kennedy, The Hong Kong Institute of Education; Chi Hung Leung, The Hong Kong Institute of Education; Ming Tak Hu, The Hong Kong Institute of Education
This paper explores the impact of Hong Kong adolescents’ religious engagement (religious background, religious service attendance, religious activities participation) on civic and social values. Students’ attitude towards the influence of religion on society was also investigated. Secondary data drawn from the International Civics and Citizenship Education Study was analyzed using multi-level path analysis. Results showed that the influence of students’ religious engagement on civic and social values was negligible at both individual level and school levels. Students’ attitudes towards the role of religion influenced civic values positively but social values negatively. Implications are drawn for theory, policy and practice.
Profiles of religiosity and spirituality in emerging adults
Amber C. Nadal, Brigham Young University; Sam Hardy, Brigham Young University; Carolyn Barry, Loyola University Maryland
This study compared variable-centered and person-centered analyses to assess the prevalence and adaptiveness of patterns of religiosity and spirituality (R/S) among emerging adults. Variable-centered analyses found that Religious and Spiritual individuals fared the best in terms of outcomes. Spiritual but not Religious and Neither Religious nor Spiritual individuals tended to have better outcomes than Religious but not Spiritual individuals. Person-centered analyses identified three classes: Low R/S, Moderate R/S, and High R/S. Comparing class outcomes revealed that High R/S individuals tended to have the best outcomes, followed by Low R/S, while Moderate R/S tended to fare the worst. Implications are discussed.
D3.5 Narrative, story and history
Symposium: Legacies of national identity: A worldwide historiographical investigation of textbooks
Chair and Discussant: Tatyana V. Tsyrlina-Spady, Seattle Pacific University
Scholars of this symposium introduce findings from an independent critical discourse and content analyses of history textbooks from China, Poland, and Russia that investigate the evolution of historical accounts of past/present national or political figures. Presenters share the historical evolution of Stalin and Putin, some national Chinese heroes and Polish saints Jadwiga of Poland and St John Paul II. These analyses focus on how historical text and imagery support ideas of political ideology and/or nationalist identity, how national heroes as described in history textbooks further develop the notion of good citizenship, and how such presentations affect civic engagement among students.
Russian metamorphosis of patriotic symbols: “New” heroes in history textbooks
Tatyana Tsyrlina-Spady, Seattle Pacific University; Alan Stoskopf, University of Massachusetts Boston
This study was guided by the following research question: How do lexical and visual representations of Stalin and Putin in history textbooks attempt to shape loyal citizens in the present? With the focus on the Russian concept of hero we have employed the semiotic codes of savior, unifier, and leader to analyze how this concept is discursively used to arrange words and images to accomplish socio/political purposes. In the presentation we demonstrate how this analytic approach has taken place, the central findings with respect to textbooks” word choices, metaphors, and photo images, and the implications for research and pedagogical practice.
National heroes and national identity education: A comparison of mainland China and Hong Kong’s textbooks
Wangbei Ye, East China Normal University
By analyzing the representation of national heroes in primary school textbooks from Mainland China and Hong Kong, this study aims to identify Hong Kong textbooks” approach to handling the tension between local autonomy and national cohesion, and reveals that Hong Kong adopted a local-centered national identity education model to ensure local identities represented in textbooks. This model offers a better framework for explaining Hong Kong’s efforts to balance the aforementioned tensions, given the contextual reality that Hong Kong citizens experience different national identity formation and enjoy different legal rights in comparison with their counterparts in Mainland China.
Moral saints and the construction of national citizenship in Polish history textbooks
Dobrochna Hildebrandt-Wypych, Adam Mickiewicz, University in Poznan
Based on the social constructivist approach, the goal of this research was to analyze a complex process of shaping civic virtues through a national heroism discourse in modern Polish history textbooks using the examples of St. Hedwig of Anjou, Queen of Poland, and St. John Paul II, the Pope. Relating to Foucault’s discourses of truth, the author searched for the dominant regime of truth in relation to national heroism and a citizenship ideal. How is this ideal defined in the historiography of national heroes/heroines? And how does it affect modern Polish teenagers and youth?
E3.5 Theory and critique
Symposium: Beyond bystanders: Educating global citizens through civic engagement and humanism
Chair: Nimrod M. Aloni, Kibbutzim College of Education
As educators, it is our role to promote world betterment and the flourishing life of our young students. This often means educating “against the current,” fighting global trends that are dehumanizing and disempowering and challenging views of marginalized, immigrant or refugee communities as “strangers.” Educators worthy of the name should no longer “sit neutrally on the fence” but rather form their professional identity “beyond bystanders”. Emulating the Hippocratic Oath, educators should commit to humanist ethics, democratic culture, social justice, intercultural awareness and environmental responsibility. To paraphrase Theodor Adorno, after Auschwitz, there should be no more “business as usual” in education.
Education for democratic citizenship
Wiel Veugelers, University of Humanistic Studies
Current teaching on democratic citizenship could be more transformative if it were attuned to the political. Students need to learn to use a political lens, as well as dialogues and reflection, to interpret civic problems, search for alternatives and formulate their own autonomous opinions. Whether in biology, economics or physical education classes, schools should promote a culture as a ‘playground for citizenship’ where students contribute ideas for the curriculum and mentor younger students. While building bridges between Dutch students separated by religion or class is positive, a larger goal should be to reduce segregation.
Whose Dreams? Debating immigration in the classroom, museum and mosque
Lori Weintrob, Wagner College Holocaust Education Center, New York; Cyril Ghosh, Wagner College, New York
Educators worthy of the name: Intellectuals, generous, master dialogicians
Nimrod Aloni, Kibbutzim College of Education, UNESCO Chair for Humanistic Education
“Educators Worthy of the Name” advocate for their students, believe in them and seek to empower them to flourish and develop their own identities and philosophies. Educators should also be engaged intellectuals. Echoing T.S. Elliott, Aloni asks: Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Educators should transmit empathetic imagination (as described by Martha Nussbaum), linguistic competencies and broad knowledge. They must be generous, inspired by the importance of self-actualization in order to promote a new kind of world citizen and civilization. Finally, an educator should master diverse forms of dialogue to generate trust and lead mutually uplifting exchanges.
The transformative power of dialogue and remembrance in Israel/Palestine
Patricia Moynagh, Wagner College
G3.5.1 Culture and context
Chair: Min Yu, Wayne State University
Can Turkish girls become German women?: Development of immigrant origin youth in Germany
Pinar Guner, UNESCO; Janet Kwok, New York University
This project examines the key limitations and challenges in German society Turkish origin young women describe as obstacles to their well-being and success. Participants were female Turkish-origin youth (2nd generation German or later, 13-21 years old) from the most disadvantaged areas in Western Germany (focus group and individual interviews). Using a primarily grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2014), results suggest that while participants perceived Turkish and German identity as mutually exclusive, they nevertheless expressed their own capabilities toward honoring both their immigrant and emerging German identities via the pursuit of education and other means of identity building toward belonging.
The possibilities of civil society and grassroots movement in China
Min Yu, Wayne State University
This study pays specific attention to China’s different political and cultural structures, by laying out the conditions and circumstances leading to the formation and development of collective actions. My aim here is to extend these discussions in my study and map out the dynamic relationship between the state and society as I examine the movement of migrant children schools as community-based organizations. This study pays particular attention to how members from the historically marginalized communities mobilized not only to challenge the label of them “being the problem”, but also to actively engage in the formation of a merging civil society.
AIDS stigma: Moral perception or moral deception
Adeb Akand, The Institute of Research, Ibadan, Nigeria
Stigmatization of persons with AIDS, is a moral education problem. It imposes severe hardships on its soft targets with its ultimate focus to interfere with the treatment and prevention of HIV infection in Africa. Therefore, using data from Lesotho was to understand and examine AIDS-stigma and suggest pragmatic views and social climate conducive to a compassionate response. Results indicate that females and younger people have significantly greater fears associated with AIDS stigma and fear of outsiders. Social concerns which encourage moral education and living by moral values are vital steps in stemming the stigma. Interpersonal relations and empathy are discussed.
G3.5.2 Culture and context
Chair: Sharon Lamb, University of Massachusetts Boston
Childhood and sexuality in central Europe
Lucie Jarkovska, Masaryk University
The paper analyses debates over sex education in connection with social and political trends in three central European countries, Slovakia, Poland and the Czech Republic. Childhood is typically seen as innocent, which inadvertently brings about constant risk that this innocence will be corrupted. Sexuality is constructed as one of the greatest dangers threatening innocent child and can be easily utilized for social mobilization. In post-communist countries debates over childhood and sexuality have recently become part of social polarization and delegitimization of gender equality policies and LGBT+ rights.
Moral reasoning Interviews of bystanders in a “sketchy” sexual situation
Madeline A. Brodt, University of Massachusetts Boston; Samuel Gable, University of Massachusetts Boston; Marta Pagan-Ortiz, University of Massachusetts Boston; Sharon Lamb, University of Massachusetts Boston
Each year in the US, one in five women are sexually assaulted or raped on college campuses. Of these, at least 16% were incapacitated. The current response is to provide programming that attempts to change campus culture by teaching social skills for bystanding. Research has shown these to be, for the most part, ineffective. We interviewed 40 undergraduates who completed an online survey, probing for moral reasoning for intervening and not intervening in what we called “sketchy” sexual situations. A thematic-discourse analytic method was used to examine the moral reasoning coming up with 11 themes/discourses we develop in our presentation.
Sexual ethics and children
Deevia Bhana, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Dominant notions of childhood innocence are abound in South Africa although how it is advanced shapes and is shaped by the broader social, cultural and racialized patterns in the country. This paper argues for an ethical approach to studies of childhood sexuality that recognises the situated constructions of power and agency. By drawing on a case study, it challenges reductionist accounts that frame children as docile. It calls for moving away from moral panic by foregrounding sexual ethics in addressing children’s lived experiences, sexuality and gender inequalities.
The influence of culture and family background on sexual ethics
Madeline A. Brodt, University of Massachusetts Boston; Marta Pagan-Ortiz, University of Massachusetts Boston; Melissa Viscovich, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Sharon Lamb, University of Massachusetts Boston
Current sex education curricula can perpetuate the marginalization of identities and gender stereotypes. In order to better understand the socio-familial contexts in which young individuals from different identity groups learn about sex and acquire ethics regarding sexual practices, we conducted a qualitative study with a diverse group of undergraduates. Using focus groups, we explored how culture and community may have influenced the ethical attitudes and practices they developed with regard to sexual relationships. Data was analyzed thematically. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for changing existing sex education curricula.
H3.5 Media and curricula workshop
Servire Aliis – Service to others
David W. Rowse, Values Education for Life; John Eyre, Values Education for Life
Kohlberg’s six stage theory of cognitive development is well known, but academics may be less aware of Kohlberg’s tentative moves towards a seventh. Here he insists that moral force remains an imperative, but that the seventh stage also requires an influx of union, love, joy and grace. For the last two years Values Education for Life has worked with a number of socially disengaged youngsters, firstly in a school setting and then within their community, exploring the validity of the seventh stage and the importance within this of spiritual development.This Media Presentation is the story of that adventure.
I3.5 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Chair: Jessica T. Fei, Harvard Graduate School of Education
‘We know the clear limits’: The framed right to participate in municipal youth councils and its educational impact
Lotem Perry-Hazan, University of Haifa; Tal Nir, University of Haifa
This study describes the phenomenon of framed participation, which constrains children’s participation frameworks within a confined area of decision-making. Drawing on interviews and focus groups with children and adult leaders participating in municipal youth councils, the study showed that council activities remained confined to the municipal department responsible for them and comprised mostly the organization of leisure activities. It also showed that the positive experiences framed the children’s rights consciousness and critical thinking. The conclusions discuss the institutional conditions that may shape framed participation, and the role of human rights education in building children’s capacity to mobilize their participation rights.
Bullying and cyberbullying: Youth participation and the school coexistence
Luciana Z. Lapa, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras; Raul A. de Souza, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras; Thais C. L. Bozza, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras; Sandra De Nadai, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras; Luciene Regina Paulino Tognetta, Universidade Estadual Paulista; Rafael Petta Daud, UNESP São Paulo
Bullying, as a form of violence that happens repeatedly among equals, has serious consequences for the individual development. Studies indicate that cases of cyberbullying and cyber aggression, in which children and teenagers are humiliated and offended by colleagues, have increased in social networks. Psychology shows that our identity is built in other’s presence, in whom we place values that we want to be seen and recognized. This study aims to share the initial results of research using a form of youth participation – the aid workers – as a strategy for the management of coexistence problems
School: place or non-place
Sonia Maria Vidigal, Sao Paulo University
One of the ways that space can be studied is from the anthropological sense, context which emerged the concepts of place and non-place. Schools, as any other educational institution, should be a place, where people could assign meaning, feel belonging and co-responsible for what happens there. In order to achieve those goals, the ethical dimension is essential to construct an environment suitable to educate people so that they have meaning in their life and purposes for the collective good. This paper aim discuss how the anthropological concept of space could be related to ethical dimension and its importance to education.
Towards a framework for place-sustaining education in urban communities
Jessica T. Fei, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Place-based education (PBE) is a paradigm rooted in strengthening the relationships between students and their local neighborhoods and communities. Although much of the literature on PBE has focused on rural contexts, place-based programs are increasingly prevalent in urban educational settings. Yet to date, no theoretical papers have explored how PBE can shape the learning, development and civic participation of city youth. Drawing from scholarship in critical geography and urban education, I present a model for urban PBE that enhances young people’s sense of agency and hope, and builds the power of communities to strengthen, sustain and transform their local places.
J3.5 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Chair: Carolyn E. Barber, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Activists, advocates, and allies: Interpreters’ claims of civic duty are compromised
Robyn K. Dean, Rochester Institute of Technology
Interpreters who work with deaf people often frame their work as a civic partnership with this linguistic and cultural minority group. Indeed, interpreters aim to provide equal access. Interpreters who enter the field are encouraged to have deaf heart and to be allies to the Deaf community. However, these justice claims and ethical ideals may not be yielding the desired results. This paper reports on qualitative and quantitative data collected on a cohort of 25 signed language interpreters, including the P score from the Defining Issues Test. The results raise concerns for the ethical standards and training of interpreters.
Social justice advocacy in helping professions: Civic education’s role
Carolyn E. Barber, University of Missouri-Kansas City; Keara D. Sherman, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Training programs in the mental health professions have been charged with helping trainees to develop social justice advocacy competencies. However, there are few to no explicit connections to civic and moral education, despite such programs providing justice-oriented civic education. In this paper, we review the potential of civic and moral education to inform work in this area. Although some research in this field draws upon theories that are familiar to civic education researchers, there are many other potential avenues for connection that, to date, have not been explored thoroughly. We will also present analyses of data to illustrate these issues.
Which caring “world” do we maintain? A study of preservice youth workers
Corinne L. McKamey, Rhode Island College
Youth work is often associated with the general concept of “caring,” even so much as the title sometimes includes the word, “Youth care professional.” However, in the U.S. context, “care” is not identified in any of the current 14 youth work professional frameworks. I will discuss three distinct ways undergraduate students enrolled in a site-based youth work course journaled about their caring interactions with urban middle school youth. Data sources include observations and students’ reflection journals. I argue that competency frameworks do not fully capture the complex caring interactions that exist in youth work settings.
K3.5 Social media, activism and marginality
Chair: Boris Zizek, University of Hannover
Implementing iPad in schools: 4th and 8th graders’ attitudes and opinions
Han Li, Harvard Graduate School of Education
What effect does digital technology have on education? The past few years have seen an array of new technological gadgets arrive on the education scene, the best known of which being iPads. Although many researchers have suggested that tablets can be supportive tools in the classrooms, there have been very few studies focusing on the attitudes of the users. In this study I explored 4th and 8th grade students’ attitudes and opinions about the use of iPads in the classroom. Emerging developmental differences include the increasing awareness of the iPad’s potential risks, and of its possible influence on social interactions.
Governance of moral anomie in cyberspace
Xiaolan Peng, South China University of Technology; Lujun Yu, Sun Yat-sen University
Internet technology broadens human freedoms and personalities, but it also inevitably creates ethical hazards. Constructing a moral cyberspace is an urgent and unsolved problem. We performed a taxonomic analysis of Internet moral anomie based on the disciplines of ethics and education. These anomies were caused by netizen characteristics such as the poverty of values and rules, lack of cultural identity, imbalanced psychology, communication misalignment, and disordered groups. Five strategies of governance for constructing harmonious cyberspace communities were discussed, including network technology monitoring, a good network environment creating, network laws perfecting, computer ethics constructing, and network opinion leaders demonstrating.
Limits of digital socialization – Microanalysis of adolescent internet-social interaction
Boris Zizek, University of Hannover
This presentation applies “extensive sequential analyses” (Oevermann, 1996) to a personal account posted on the MTV website A Thin Line (ATL), and to the respective multiple responding comments by account readers. Building upon Weinstein`s and Selman`s identification of six socio-digital stressors on this website (2014), the case demonstrates the preference by adolescents for self revelation in anonymous social networks (Davis 2013), with the expectation that commenters will take up an empathetic perspective. This microanalytic reconstruction of filtered interaction supports Turkles’ thesis that technically conveyed interaction is often used as a willful turning away from the „complexities of relationships“ (Turkle, 2011,2015).
SIG3.5: Special Interest Group
Special interest group: Promoting racial and ethnic justice and inclusion at AME
Larry Blum, University of Massachusetts Boston
This session is essentially a meeting of the Race/Multiculturalism Special Interest Group (SIG), one of the 2 recognized SIGs of AME. The SIG meets at every conference to discuss how we can promote scholarly discussions of issues of race and ethnicity in relation to marginality, subordination, and other forms of injustice; and how we can promote the presence of, and work of, scholars of color within AME. The AME itself is officially committed to these goals, and our SIG helps it to live up to those commitments. “Membership” in the SIG is pretty loose. It just means whoever is present at a given conference who is interested in furthering this agenda, though we do have some “regulars.” All are welcome!