Poster Session 3.6: 4:30 PM – 5:45 PM

Poster Presentations and Reception sponsored by Tufts University’s Tisch College of Civic Life
Gutman Conference Center and Gutman Café
(Light refreshments available on the first and lower levels of Gutman)

Exploring power and empowerment in community-based participatory research: Preliminary findings
Alen Agaronov, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Kirsten K. Davison, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Erica S. Tukiainen, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Janine M. Jurkowski, University at Albany-SUNY School of Public Health

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) entails the creation of empowering settings that allow for equitable partner engagement in the research process. However, less is understood about existing power structures in CBPR as they might influence empowering processes. We describe how empowerment navigates across power structures in CBPR to result in social change using an embedded single case study of two community advisory boards as part of a childhood obesity intervention in Head Start in Boston, Cambridge, and Somerville, Massachusetts. Preliminary findings from this study aim to inform researchers on how to address power structures that might influence civic empowerment

School rules in the digital age: Students’ alternatives to banning iPads
Anastasia M. Aguiar, Harvard University

An essay prompt in the Catalyzing Comprehension through Discussion and Debate program asked students to respond to a hypothetical scenario in which the principal banned the use of iPads in schools because of cyberbullying. I focus on the alternatives that eighth grade students in four districts suggested.

Baby’s first helping: A retrospective study of early helping
Elizabeth G. Al-Jbouri, University of Ottawa; Laura E. Feltham, University of Ottawa; Victoria L. L. Edwards, University of Ottawa; Stuart I. Hammond, University of Ottawa

Recent research demonstrates the emergence of helping in the second year of life. However, anecdotal evidence has long suggested that infants begin helping even earlier. This study uses parental retrospective reports to examine infants’ helping behaviours in the context of everyday chores (e.g., cleaning up) and autonomous chores (self-care that children are unable to perform independently, e.g., getting dressed). Findings indicate that infants begin helping as early as seven months of age, and will be discussed both in relate to their significance in understanding later prosocial development, and their connection to child characteristics (e.g., gender; temperament).

The benefits of discussing with the “other group”
Michelle G. Bernardino, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Roberto Gonzalez, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Jorge Manzi, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Héctor Carvacho, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

A conflict caused by a dilemma discussion could provoke changes in perceiving the outgroup. Our research focused on comparing how participants from intra and intergroup friendships felt after talking about polemic topics. We hypothesized (H1) an interaction effect between kind of friendship (best for intergroup versus intragroup) and time (two waves), and (H2) that people prefer talking to ingroup friends. University students and friends identified with the left wing or right wing. The results confirmed the hypothesis indicating that cross-group condition provoked improvement in outgroup evaluation as a whole, and that people preferred talking to friends of the same political group.

Program evaluation of Leading Together: Building adult community in schools
Nora Bond, Tufts University

This poster presents program evaluation of Leading Together: Building Adult Communities in Schools (LT). As a six-month intervention, LT attempts to enhance relationships among staff by introducing principles that teach dialogue skills (e.g. deep listening) and practices that structure positive interactions (e.g. Thank You Circle). The evaluation included two collection periods. The first used interviews and surveys to determine pre existing factors to uptake (e.g. principal leadership style). The second used an inventory to understand personal changes as a result of participation. Qualitative results of the intervention are detailed, and implications for future LT work in schools are suggested.

A personal case study of philosophical and moral development
Dwight R. Boyd, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

This presentation explains the thinking behind a recently published book, Becoming of Two Minds about Liberalism: A Chronicle of Philosophical and Moral Development. The approach in the book represents a unique integration of philosophy and psychology in both its aim and content. The presentation will describe this integration as it functions to give an account of the author’s personal development.

Promoting future teachers’ social and emotional competencies in Colombia
Andrea Bustamante, University of Missouri – St. Louis

Despite the relevance of supporting teachers to develop their abilities to effectively cope with the challenges of their profession so they can create a positive climate inside their classrooms, maintain healthy relationships with their students, and be good role models for them, these aspects are often disregarded in educational policies and efforts. This study seeks to design, implement, and evaluate a course for future teachers in Colombia intended to promote their social and emotional competencies, and their classroom management knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Preliminary results of the intervention in two teacher education programs are presented.

It can’t be helped: Individual differences in toddlers’ helping
Humeyra N. Celebi, University of Ottawa; Mariam Ismail, University of Ottawa; Stuart I. Hammond, University of Ottawa

Children begin helping others early in the lifespan; however, very little is known about individual differences in these early emerging prosocial behaviours. The present study explores helping behaviours in relation to demographics, language, and temperament in one-hundred children between the ages of 1 and 4 years. Additionally, the study will explore whether individual differences in helping can be meaningfully categorized in terms of low-medium-and-high-helping children, or if these differences are more complex across various types of prosocial behaviours.

Investigating the role of critical curiosity in youth critical consciousness development
Shelby E. Clark, Boston University; Scott Seider, Boston University

Critical consciousness refers to how individuals come to understand and challenge systems of oppression. Critical curiosity—the urge to know more about social justice and inequity—serves as an important catalyst to critical consciousness development, yet recent critical consciousness models overlook critical curiosity and focus on the elements of critical reflection, motivation, and action. Relatively little is known about the relationship between students’ critical curiosity and these elements of critical consciousness. The present study investigated which elements of critical consciousness students attending five urban charter high school described as catalyzing their critical curiosity across three years of high school.

Bioethics in school: The use of digital literacy in the case of phosphoethanolamine to fostering civic engagement
Fabio M. De Moraes, Universidade de São Paulo

The objective was to sensitize high school students for civic engagement. In this context, we emphasize the controversy involving individuals subjected to the use of the chemical compound  phosphoethanolamine. It is active methodology which included lectures that detailed and pondered reflective positions in relation to bioethical principles and the need to identify ethical moral values in the case study. So with the use of digital literacy, students argued based on scientific evidence, positions critical about the theme.
What do we tell the children?
Deborah K. Deemer, University of Northern Iowa

If extreme weather events are a harbinger of the life altering changes yet to come, a challenge for educators is to nurture not only ethical lives, but life sustaining practices. A number of initiatives within our university and the local community indicate sustainability is on the minds of community members, and increasingly a significant part of the culture. This project (1) traces the contours of local sustainability initiatives (2) explores contradictions and points of productive tension to (3) anticipate and facilitate moral assemblages (Zigon, 2010) that help support movement toward more sustainable ways of living.

Structural-developmental conceptions of the beautiful
Albert Erdynast, Antioch University Los Angeles; Wendy Chen, Antioch University Los Angeles; Amanda Ikin, Antioch University Los Angeles; Scott Taylor, Antioch University Los Angeles

The poster presents the empirical results of a study as to whether Picasso’s Bull Series (1945-1946) and the painting Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907) are beautiful and the correlation between responses to these two complex art works. Picasso’s Bull Series was postulated to be less aesthetically complex than his Demoiselles d’ Avignon, and the findings supports the hypothesis. The Erdynast and Chen (2014) study uses responses to Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907). Scoring manuals were created for the analysis of The Bull Series in the current study.

Becoming a teacher: Ideas for university education and civic engagement.
Francisco Esteban, University of Barcelona; Maria Rosa Buxarrais, University of Barcelona

What makes a good teacher is a timeless question that concern us all. This study focuses on undergraduates studying a degree in Primary Education in the universities of Catalonia. We employ a quantitative methodology based on a self-administered questionnaire conducted with a representative sample. We construct three main categories: personal, authentic teacher; the teacher as storyteller; and, the teacher as motivator of learning. Our results highlight important differences between these categories, extolling above all the authentic, personal teacher. This, together with other findings, allows us to offer some considerations for the university education and civic engagement.

“Postconvencionales”: Papers on moral education for Spanish-speaking audiences
Levy R. Farias, Universidad Central de Venezuela

Although we are supposed to be living in a globalized era, the number of academic texts about moral or civic education available in Spanish is but a small fraction of those available in English. Sponsored by the School of Political Science of the Central University of Venezuela, the Open Journal “Postconvencionales: Ética, Universidad, Democracia”, has been contributing, since 2010, with a wider dissemination of the accumulated knowledge on moral and democratic education. The poster informs about the contents, characteristics and current challenges of this free online publication, also calling for more international collaboration in favor of this kind of endeavor.

Understanding how Girl Scouts “take action” in the community
Kaitlyn A. Ferris, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development – Tufts University; Patricia K. Gansert, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development – Tufts University; Richard M. Lerner, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development – Tufts University; Sabrica Barnett, Girl Scouts Research Institute

This study examines a community-research partnership between university-based researchers and the Girl Scouts Research Institute during a collaboration exploring the impact of Girl Scout programming on civic engagement outcomes. Girl Scouts (N = 1,598) from four U.S. councils completed surveys measuring beliefs about civic action and civic participation behaviors. Results indicated that across Girl Scout age groups (e.g., Daisy, Brownie, Junior, Cadette), girls’ civic engagement was comprised of beliefs about civic action and context-specific engagement in civic participation. The presentation will include a discussion of the future directions and implications of university-community collaborations interested in civic engagement among youth.

Moral reasoning of bystanders in sketchy sexual situations: Addressing sexual assault on campus
Samuel A. Gable, University of Massachusetts Boston; Madeline Brodt, University of Massachusetts Boston; Marta Pagan-Ortiz, University of Massachusetts Boston; Sharon Lamb, University of Massachusetts Boston

Each year in the US, one in five women are sexually assaulted or raped on college campuses. Of these, at least 16% were incapacitated. The current response is to provide programming that attempts to change campus culture by teaching social skills for bystanding. Research has shown these to be, for the most part, ineffective. We examined the moral reasoning of interveners and non-interveners in an online survey where 280 diverse undergraduates described a sketchy sexual situation and were compared along five Moral Foundations (Haidt, 2012). Those who scored higher in the more conservative moral foundations were less likely to intervene.

Panoptic schools: Ethical dilemmas and anti-terrorism policy
Gemma A. Gronland, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Each year in the US, one in five women are sexually assaulted or raped on college campuses. Of these, at least 16% were incapacitated. The current response is to provide programming that attempts to change campus culture by teaching social skills for bystanding. Research has shown these to be, for the most part, ineffective. We examined the moral reasoning of interveners and non-interveners in an online survey where 280 diverse undergraduates described a sketchy sexual situation and were compared along five Moral Foundations (Haidt, 2012). Those who scored higher in the more conservative moral foundations were less likely to intervene.

An empirical study on Chinese and American college students’ moral values self-identity
Zhu Hailong, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies of China

The study with the self-designed questionnaire was conducted to Chinese and American undergraduate students launching an empirical study which is about the moral values Self-identity from six moral value dimensions. Measurement results show that the difference between Chinese and American college students, are not significant in four moral value dimensions. while,the two college students’  moral values approval show significant differences. Furthermore, it proved that it is important to enhance the level of Chinese college students’ moral consciousness, especially esteem. Also, the moral values of unity and help to American students must be improved.

Exploring moral congruency in the actual-ideal selves
Maria E. Hill, University of St. Thomas; Brityn Ryshavy, University of St. Thomas; Jayna Lundgren, University of St. Thomas; Tonia Bock, University of St. Thomas

While Hardy and colleagues (Hardy et al., 2014) have examined a person’s ideal self in the moral domain, no one has compared people’s actual and ideal moral selves and its implications for moral motivation. Oyserman (2011) theorizes that maintaining some congruency between the actual and ideal selves may motivate one’s behavior. We empirically examined moral congruency in the actual-ideal selves and four moral motivational variables (integrity, moral identity, Machiavellianism, and moral disengagement). We found expected group differences for all motivational variables – the group highest in congruency differed from the lowest – with integrity best predicting the degree of moral congruency.

Understanding the ethical foundations of economics among Japanese senior high school students
Takenori Inose, Nippon Sport Science University; Keiko Takahashi, Jissen Women’s University; Hisashi Kurihara, Toyo University; Satoru Miyahara, Nagoya Women’s University; Kazuhide Hattori, Yamanashi University; Eiji Yamane, Mie University

The study aimed to present the findings of a survey regarding students’ commitment to six moral foundations as well as their understanding of ethical and economic concepts.Previous studies investigated economic literacy and financial morality; however, there have been limited surveys of economic literacy based on ethics. This survey comprised a test of 28 questions related to economics and ethics: and six questions on Jonathan Haidt’s moral foundations. Results revealed that most students possess a narrow understanding of the ideas of justice and virtues. Moreover, there is a correlation between their economic understandings and some parts of Haidt’s moral foundations.

Moral identities in a bicultural perspective
Fanli Jia, Seton Hall University; Tobias Krettenauer, Wilfrid Laurier University

Research on moral identity has been conducted primarily with Western populations. Little attention has been directed to examine cultural aspects on moral identity. The present study examined cultural similarities and differences on moral identities among Chinese Canadians who constituted the bicultural group; European Canadians represented the mainstream standard of comparison; and Chinese in China constituted the heritage comparison. Overall, Chinese Canadians’ moral identities were significantly different from Chinese in China in the domains of Benevolence-dependable, Self-direction, Security, and Tradition. However, there were no difference between Chinese Canadians and European Canadians in all domains.

Adolescents’ social justice-oriented civic engagement: Relations with student, parent, and school characteristics
Sara Johnson, Tufts University; Ettya R. Fremont, Tufts University; Mary H. Buckingham, Tufts University; Rachel M. Hershberg, University of Washington Tacoma

Encouraging adolescents to value and work toward social justice may be most successful when justice-oriented messages are consistently promoted across contexts. Using data from 98 youth (Mage = 13 years, 58% girls, 63% White), one of their parents, and a teacher from their school, we investigated students’ attitudes and behaviors around social justice, parental attitudes on these topics, and all groups’ reports of how much the adolescents’ school focused on social justice. Compared to parents and teachers, students reported considerably less emphasis on social justice at school. Only student reports were related to students’ political activities, community service, and activism.

Correlates with highest moral values among three countries in WVS
Sunghun Kim, St. Francis College

Studies on moral values in cross-cultural perspective have not been conducted frequently or widely. The current study compared morality-related values and their correlates for three countries (the U.S., Mexico, and South Korea) using the World Value Survey (WVS). Based on respondents’ ratings on the items about morality-related values in WVS, two groups (lowest vs. highest in ratings) were compared in terms of life satisfaction, social trust, education attainments, political standpoints, and religiosity. Three countries were found to be different regarding the kinds of factors that make the two groups different and the ways they may make difference in moral values.

Companionship, caregiving and moral development in preschool children
Angela M. Kurth, University of Notre Dame; Kallie Renfus, University of Notre Dame; Darcia Narvaez, University of Notre Dame

Similar to other mammals, humans evolved a nest for their young, the Evolved Developmental Niche (EDN) which includes high levels of responsivity, extensive positive touch, social cohesion, and playful interactions. Studies have demonstrated relationships between degree of EDN consistency in childhood and positive child and adult outcomes. We examined how EDN consistency in parenting predicted preschool children’s sociomoral temperament. For example, we found that a child’s relational attunement was predicted by the parent’s childhood home climate, the parent’s relational attunement orientation, and the child’s positive home climate in the past week. We also discuss teacher reports.

Character, empathy, happiness and bullying: How are they related in explaining the types of bullying participants among primary students?
Son Kyung-Won, Seoul National University

This study examined the relationship between bullying and influential factors(character, empathy, happiness) with 2556 4th and 5th grade students from 20 primary schools in South Korea. A self-report survey questionnaires was administered to assess the students’s the index of character, the level of empathy, happiness, scores on four types of bullying participation(Bully, Bully assistant, Bystander, Victim defender). A series of ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were run to find out the empirical difference in the scores of character, empathy, happiness by four types of bullying participation.

Development of moral values during junior high school
Naohiro Matsuo, Tokyo Gakugei University

The purpose of this research is to examine the development of moral values and self-reflection of students who received the moral education related to the school events. Participants are 501 students of a public junior high school and answered the questionnaire which included two question about moral values: “How much do you think the value is important?” and “How much can you realize the value?”. Participants answered questions on 12 values, and the questionnaire were conducted several times. Result indicated some score of moral values and self-reflection tended to rise after school events and moral class about those events.

Competence and moral judgment in electronic game design students
Eduardo Silva Miranda, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo and Rede DOCTUM de Ensino; Fernanda Helena de Freitas Miranda; Claudia Broetto Rossetti, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo

This paper presents preliminary data from an assessment of the moral level of competence of electronic game design students and analyze the judgment of these same participants about the nature of moral content in videogames. Two instruments were used: the questionnaire MCT-xt (Moral Competence Test – extended) an adaptation to Portuguese held by Bataglia (2010) starting from the original created by Lind (2006) and an interview inspired by the Piagetian clinical method (Piaget, 1926/2005). The results explain the views of participants about morality and how they understand the possible influence of the content of games on behavior and moral development.

Human-animal interaction as a context for promoting youth contribution
Megan K. Mueller, Tufts University; Kristina Schmid Callina, Tufts University

Research shows that human-animal interaction (HAI) is associated with indicators of positive youth development, such as the “Five Cs”, as well as prosocial attitudes and behaviors, including the “Sixth C” of Contribution. One prevalent HAI context is volunteering. Accordingly, we investigated differences in volunteering outcomes for animal-related versus other types of volunteer activities. Using data from two studies – the PET Study and 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development – we found a significant difference in Contribution among youth who volunteered with animals compared with those who engaged in other types of volunteer activities.

Children and adolescents’ decision-making on gratitude
Lia T. O’Brien, University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Jonathan R.H. Tudge, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Gratitude is important for individual development and for social connections. We examine under what conditions children express gratitude as a virtue. Our definition of gratitude as a virtue involves a benefactor intentionally providing something to a beneficiary who wishes to repay, if possible, with something of value to the benefactor. Findings indicate that individuals expressing gratitude as a virtue are more likely to maintain that type of gratitude, indicating stability in its expression. Additionally, those provided time to reflect are more likely to express a more sophisticated form of gratitude. This provides guidance in encouraging gratitude in children and adolescents.

The mixed feelings and facial expression drawing of children’s development
Chisato Oikawa, Hosei University; Yayoi Watanabe, Hosei University

The aims of this study were to clarify (1) when children would express their own mixed feelings of positive feelings and negative feelings, and (2) how they would be able to draw a picture of their facial expressions showing mixed feelings. Participants were 908 Japanese elementary school students from the 1st to 6th grade. In the positive condition, results showed that there was significantly more children who showed their mixed feelings in the 4th grade than any other grade students. Moreover, some children could draw their facial expressions showing mixed feelings, such as “Mouth” representing happiness while “Brow” meaning sadness.

The Aristotelian good life: A blueprint for citizenship education?
Abdulla I. Omaigan, Durham University

Through my poster, I hope to demonstrate that an indirect blueprint of “the good life”, in order to aid the cultivation of practical wisdom, is best provided through in-school programs that focus on citizenship education as opposed to ones that are centred predominantly on moral education.

Identity development and school adjustment of Korean-Chinese adolescents
Yonghan Park, Chungnam National University, South Korea; Chunxiang Cheng, Chungnam National University; Yihua Li, Chungnam National University; Ji-Yoon Park, Chungnam National University

This study explores the characteristics of self and social identities of Korean-Chinese middle school students who live in the Korean Autonomous Prefecture of Yanbian, China. These students are situated in a unique social context, because their political and economic environment is based on that of China while their cultural environment is much influenced by both South Korea and North Korea. Also, geographically they are close to North Korea. This study presents how this unique context affects the identity development of the young Korean-Chinese adolescents and how the identity is related to their learning and other aspects of development.

Testing of a model of eudaimonic marital quality
Jason R. Petersen, Brigham Young University; Amber Nadal, Brigham Young University; Sam Hardy, Brigham Young University

While psychology has long taken an interest in what makes relationships good, this research has been overwhelmingly instrumental in nature and focuses on what each partner gains or loses–namely satisfaction. Recently a small body of conceptual work has begun to explore models of eudaimonic marital quality. Drawing from an Aristotelian tradition, scholars have instead proposed that a eudaimon embodies virtues which enable the pursuit of worthwhile, shared goals in the context of relationships (see Fowers & Owenz, 2010). This study takes some first steps in empirically examining the roles that goal contents and virtues play in couple well-being.

Exploring relationships among moral reasoning, need for cognition, and multicultural experience
Meghan M. Saculla, The University of Alabama

Research demonstrates a relationship between diversity experiences and moral judgment development in college students (Narvaez & Hill, 2010; Endicott, Bock, & Narvaez, 2003; Mayhew & Engberg, 2010; Hurtado, Mayhew, & Engberg, 2003). Additionally, need for cognition has been linked to campus climate for diversity (Goodman, 2011), as well as moral decision-making (Street, Douglas, Geiger, & Martinko, 2001). The present study investigated the relationships among all of these constructs: diversity experiences, moral judgment development, and need for cognition. Results demonstrated that diversity experiences are more important, where moral reasoning is concerned, for individuals with a low, versus high, need for cognition.

Revisiting faith development: Religious affiliation and spiritual development of emerging adults
Amie K. Senland, Trinity College; Elizabeth Vozzola, University of Saint Joseph

The poster presents results of a survey of the religious affiliations and perceptions of a higher power of emerging adult women at a university with a strategic goal of exploring students’ spirituality. Using a new measure based on the religious categories in the Pew Research Center’s (2015) study of religion as well as Kohlberg and Power’s (1981) faith development stages, we surveyed first-year students and seniors. Findings from the first wave of data collection suggested strong developmental trends in students’ preference for higher stage conceptions of a supreme being, with seniors and first-year honors students consistently preferring higher stage items.

PBL as a tool for education for racial relations
Mauro T. Siqueira, University of São Paulo

The poster presents results of a survey of the religious affiliations and perceptions of a higher power of emerging adult women at a university with a strategic goal of exploring students’ spirituality. Using a new measure based on the religious categories in the Pew Research Center’s (2015) study of religion as well as Kohlberg and Power’s (1981) faith development stages, we surveyed first-year students and seniors. Findings from the first wave of data collection suggested strong developmental trends in students’ preference for higher stage conceptions of a supreme being, with seniors and first-year honors students consistently preferring higher stage items.

Moral chronicity and religiosity
Edward A. Smith, University of Notre Dame

Because most religions advocate a common set of virtues and moral behaviors to be followed, highly religious individuals may also perceive social situations through primarily moral filters. Narvaez et al. (2006) dubbed such individuals moral “chronics.” This project seeks to explore whether there is a connection between religiosity and moral identity, specifically whether highly religious individuals are morally chronic more often than non-religious individuals. In a study similar to Narvaez et al. (2006), we examined the prevalence of moral chronicity among religious individuals and its effects on the evaluation of characters in moral situations.

Perception of self-realization of purpose adolescents
Denise D. Tardeli, University of São Paulo

This research project refers to an investigation into the trend of self-fulfillment manifests the vital Purposes of approximately 600 school adolescents, boys and girls, the city of Santos / SP, with the intention to explore the idea of how this subject to be active and participatory on issues of political and cultural order, capable of acting in the professional world, to project on building their future and society itself, valuing the emotional ties and his concern for others. This research has as theoretical basis the area of Developmental Psychology and Psychology of Morality.

The stage structure in moral judgment development: Applying item response theory to defining issues test data
Thijs Van Den Enden, Utrecht University; Jan Boom, Utrecht University; Daniel Brugman, Utrecht University; Steve Thoma, University of Alabama

The stage models of moral judgment development proposed by Kohlberg and the neo-Kohlbergians were investigated by using multi-category item response theory models on a very large dataset (N = 55,319) of the Defining Issues Test. By comparing the theoretically assumed stage structures with the structure in the data, we found support for the consistency between both. The original Kohlbergian stage order fitted the data reasonably, although stage 2 and 3 overlapped more than expected. However, moral judgment differed systematically across moral dilemmas. Evidence concerning substages 5A and 5B was mixed, but results did support the neo-Kohlbergian schema structure.

Opportunities for civic participation at school: Triangulating reports from students, parents, and teachers
Michelle B. Weiner, Boston College; Stacy L. Morris; Boston College; Sara Suzuki; Boston College; Caitlin C. Aymong; Boston College; Joseph Mayotte, Boston College; Julia Gustin, Boston College, Sara K. Johnson, Tufts University, Jacqueline V. Lerner, Boston College

We explored perceptions of opportunities for participation at school among 98 early adolescents from New England (Mage = 12.83, 42% female, 63% Caucasian), their parents, and a school staff member they nominated. Participants reported their perceptions of opportunities for youth involvement in seven activities. Teachers perceived more opportunities for involvement compared to parents or students, but only student reports were related to students’ reports of actual participation. We discuss the implications of these results for future research on perception of opportunities and how these perceptions might influence students’ contribution behaviors.

On exhibit: Ethical considerations for civic engagement
Olivia A. Williams, Grand Valley State University; Kathy Deen Evans, University of Tennessee-Martin

This poster takes up the civic engagement theme of the conference. Its purpose is to elicit discussion with participants around ideas of ethics when participating in service learning opportunities. The poster seeks to prompt discussions with three ideological questions which derive from the overarching question of, “What are the ethical considerations for civic engagement for the purposes of service learning”. Often in the form of community engagement, service learning provides experiences for people to participate in cross cultural opportunities. This poster will consider the ethical consideration around ‘communities on display’ as citizens seek to bridge cultural disconnection through service learning

Triune ethics in children: Validating CTEM in USA and China
Ryan Woodbury, University of Notre Dame; Darcia Narvaez, University of Notre Dame; Ying Cheng, University of Notre Dame; Lijuan Wang, University of Notre Dame

Triune ethics meta-theory addresses effects of embodied experience on psychosocial development, specifically moral functioning. We examined a child triune ethics measure with USA (n=574) and Chinese (n=379) mothers and children. PCA, EFA, and CFA suggested strong invariant two-factor model between the countries: Self-Protectionism and Imaginative Relational Attunement. Further evidence suggested the two CTEM factors significantly explained several child outcomes beyond current measures of child moral functioning.

Clash of postconventional standards: Should Apple help the FBI?
Yuejin Xu, Murray State University

FBI’s request for Apple to unlock an iPhone has not only led to ongoing legal battle between FBI and Apple in courts but also generated much discussion over privacy and security nationwide. This study uses text mining techniques to analyze comments posted by registered readers in two online communities. We aim to find patterns among online readers’ reasoning on this dispute, and to see if types of online communities may impact its readers’ reasoning.

Active learning method and evaluation for moral education
Ryota Yaginuma, Gifu National University

New course of study in Japan will introduce active learning method around the curriculum including moral lesson as the special subject. New moral lessons also are willing to introduce the above active learning style. It encourages students to think actively and independently the moral problems and discuss them among student’s group. Active learning for moral education positively introduce problem-solving learning and experimental learning. Experimental learning often takes up role play in the moral problem, skill training for human relation, etiquette. Active learning for moral education positively utilizes performance evaluation and portfolio evaluation for understanding the process concerning children’s moral growth.

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