A4.1 Pedagogy, values and goals
Chair: Isolde De Groot, University of Humanistic Studies
Pragmatic realism and the educational foundations of global justice
Nicolas J. Tanchuk, Columbia University
I argue that all reflective agents share an implicit but normatively fundamental ideal of correctly conceiving their projects. Once made explicit, I claim that a fundamental normative commitment to preserving and promoting our capacities to realize this ideal in community with others follows. By virtue of the nature of this grounding commitment, the ideal community projected by it is egalitarian and progressive in form. I conclude that the normative universality and priority of this ideal community affords a plausible basis for a radical theory of global justice that prioritizes pragmatic learning over competing political and religious doctrines.
Stretching our moral identity through predicaments: A poetic inquiry
Rosa Hong Chen, Teachers College, Columbia University; Jennie Yi Nan Chen, Fairchild Radio
In this paper we offer poetic narrative as a mode of inquiry. We draw on three strands of framework to discuss how limiting situations might help people recognize and reconstruct their moral identities. By illustrations of our own autobiographical poems, we discuss how, in the process of writing, we come to ways of knowing ourselves and the things around us, hence affirming our positionings in socially diverse and conflicting contexts. We emphasize the importance of using poetic language as a tool of self-construction and moral development in the predicaments of immigration.
Teacher perspectives on mock elections in Dutch civic education
Isolde De Groot, University of Humanistic Studies
This paper reports an explorative qualitative inquiry into the political development that Social Studies teachers in the Netherlands aimed to foster with the educational activities they offered in the context of the 2012 National Elections. Analysis of interviews with teachers from eight schools revealed that attention to critical literacy development was not paramount, and that few teachers also fostered competences and identity development beyond party affiliations in this context. After discussing our findings in relation to critical theories in civics, several recommendations are made for ME-education research and practice in multi-party systems.
B4.1 Development of values and purpose
Symposium: Emotions, rationality and intuition in relational aggression: Ways of knowing and coping
Chair: Dawn E. Schrader, Cornell University
Emotion and rationality are two sides of the current discourse in moral psychology, mirroring two sides of judgment and decision-making generally. Using relational aggression situations as a grounding context, the symposium”s three papers take different approaches to moral emotions. The first two papers uses techniques of constructed grounded theory (paper 1) and linguistic analysis via LIWC (paper 2) to understand emotions, rationality, intuition and moral foundations. The third paper demonstrates the prototype of a social media app as an intervention to promote positive outcomes for coping and self-compassion in lived experience of social aggression.
Adolescent girls’ experiences of emotions in situations of relational aggression
Jess Matthews, Cornell University; Dawn E. Schrader, Cornell University
Emotions run high in relational aggression situations. This paper presents the development and implementation of a coding system of emotion families derived from empirical analysis of a 4 year longitudinal study of relational aggression (Schrader) and theoretical sensitivity to emotion literature (Charmaz, 2016). Results indicate both moral and non-moral emotions are used in adolescent narratives, with varying types of anger as the primary emotion expressed and maintained over time. Other prominent moral emotions include feeling bad/sad and positive upstanding emotion. Three case studies illustrate emotion families” use and changes over time. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Moral foundations of relational aggression: Rational justifications or emotional judgments?
Dawn E. Schrader, Cornell University; Madeline R. Weinfeld, Cornell University; Nicole Kaiden, Cornell University; Meghnaa Tallapragada, Cornell University
Moral foundations theory claims that there are universal foundational concerns of all human beings, and these foundations have some evolutionary source. People may or may not be reflective about how these foundations influence thought and behavior, especially in relational aggression situations. This paper reports results of a Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) analysis of language using a dictionary developed for moral foundations, rational and intuitive thinking and relational aggression. Results help us to draw theoretical connections between these constructs in terms of whether, and how rationally, the language of moral foundations is evidenced in relational aggression situations.
What is “app” with relational aggression?
Dawn E. Schrader, Cornell University; Ali Soong, Cornell University; Meghnaa Tallapragada, Cornell University
This paper reports on the development of an app designed to act as a decision making and strategy-development guide for users facing difficult, stressful, or upsetting social aggression interactions in real life, on-time. The goal of the app is to teach and develop self and social awareness in situations of social aggression. It will offer decision tree strategies of forms of self-compassion (Neff) and positive coping (Carver). By providing such an intervention, the app promotes a sense of self and social awareness and strength in the face of adversity, and propose a change to educational interventions to use mobile technology.
C4.1 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall
Symposium: The formation of prophetic conscience and civic engagement in Catholicism
Chair: Daniel J. Fleming, The Australian Institute of Theological Education
Through examples of student work on paper and of classroom discussion in audio recordings and transcripts or on film, as well as a discussion of curricula, this presentation will examine these ways of developing productive classroom discussions, and will consider the merits.
The re-development and re-awakening of Catholic conscience in post-war Europe and in the United States
James F. Keenan, Boston College
Developing a prophetic conscience as part of the integral process of higher education
Ronaldo Zacharias, Salesian University Sao Paulo, Brazil
In the educational process, providing quality education has become imperative. However, the concept of quality is often reduced to the acquisition of competence in a particular field of knowledge and the development of skills necessary for demonstrating such competency. Our current reality shows us that although thousands of competent and skilled people are entering the labor market each year, this fact alone does not guarantee the advancement of socio-cultural changes that contribute to the inter-related processes of humanization and the exercise of conscious and responsible citizenship. This paper explores the findings of an interdisciplinary research project into the degree of social awareness and prophetic consciousness present among students at UNISAL, students who are in their final year of studies in the law school, the business school, the school of education and the department of psychology.
Prophetic conscience as a threshold concept: The challenge of teaching people to challenge their own worldviews
Daniel J. Fleming, The Australian Institute of Theological Education
In this theoretical paper, I draw from research in the areas of theological ethics, moral education, and threshold concepts theory to posit an argument for the enduring importance of the Catholic understanding of prophetic conscience and the challenges associated in teaching about this. The paper builds from research which has uncovered the importance of religious disposition and commitment in moral reasoning (for example Damon & Colby, 2015). Drawing from this and previous work which has established an argument that the Catholic understanding of conscience continues to be defensible in view of current findings in moral psychology and relevant in a diverse context (subject to some nuances, see Fleming, 2016), the paper will suggest that from the perspective of moral education conscience is best understood as a “threshold concept”, and that this theoretical framework can advance the understanding of both conscience and moral education.
D4.1 Narrative, story and history
Chair: Meira Levinson, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Collaborative dialogue and the emergence of black girls’ civic capacities
Tonya D. Bibbs, Erikson Institute
This paper provides a sociogenetic analysis of a dialogue between two 11 year-old Black girls in an urban setting. The paper discusses: middle childhood as a unique period for moral and civic development; the relationship between moral and civic concerns; and the importance of including controversial and experience near issues in civic learning. Findings suggest that the development of civic capacities necessitates collaborative space in which children like those in this study can grapple with the controversial issues they encounter in their community experience.
Immigration, adolescents and public policy deliberations
Margaret S. Crocco, Michigan State University; Avner Segall, Michigan State University
Debating public policies around immigration by adolescents in high school classrooms reveals variable levels of concern regarding the moral issues embedded within these policies. This paper is part of a larger study regarding adolescent use of evidence in public policy deliberations and its relationship to social trust. Along with varying levels of social trust and frequency of discussion in the three classrooms, differences emerged in this study regarding attention to moral issues in the deliberation concerning immigration.
The ethics of civic education in the age of Trump
Meira Levinson, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Educators face hard ethical dilemmas regarding how to address the 2016 Republican primary candidates’ racist, sexist, xenophobic, and Islamophobic statements. This is illuminated by a case study of a teacher in a politically heterogeneous context. The case uses interviews with educators, students, and parents to illuminate the ethical, empirical, and practical choices at stake. Drawing on political and moral theory, civic education research, and data from focus groups that have read and discussed the case study, the paper then analyzes the ethical principles at stake and recommends practices that civic educators can use to address similar dilemmas in context.
E4.1 Theory and critique
Symposium: Is participation a magic bullet for civic responsibility?
Chair and Discussant: Robert L. Selman, Harvard Graduate School of Education
In western societies of today it is a fact that we can live without political and civic participation. This leads to the question why people in democratic societies want to participate and benefit from social wealth, but otherwise they do not take over responsibility to bring in their voice and to engage for better collective live. The opposite of participation – political apathy – does not only imply civic disengagement, it also leads to learned helplessness. This is a kind of mistrust in the effectiveness of participation. It contradicts the belief that a well-functioning democracy needs participating young citizens.
Moral reasoning as civic participation
Larry Nucci, University of California Berkeley
Democratic participation: A raft of hope for our forgotten children
F. Clark Power, University of Notre Dame
30-year follow up of high school just community democratic participation: Influences on adulthood parenting, working, and civic engagement
Ann Higgins-D’Alessandro, Fordham University; John Anibal Gomez Varon, Fordham University; Mona Khalil, Fordham University
Participation and civic education: Two dimensions?
Horst Biedermann, University of Salzburg; Fritz Oser, University of Fribourg
I4.1 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Chair: Sanjay K. Nanwani, Universidad de los Andes
How to do democratic citizenship education in Colombia
Sanjay K. Nanwani, Universidad de los Andes; Carlos Mario Camacho Gonzalez
Our study focuses on how to do democratic citizenship education in Colombia. We are concerned with three distinctive democratic citizenship features: genuine student participation (Ruddock & Flutter, 2004); equality of respect and recognition, and equality of power (Lynch & Baker, 2005); and critical thinking (Veugelers, 2007). These three features (despite being acknowledged in theory through public policy in Colombia) are weak in practice, and not present and meaningful enough, in the Colombian education system. We are also concerned with the potential of democratic classroom climates, based on the premise that classroom climate primes and promotes particular behaviours (Narvaez, 2010).
Surveillance, sovereignty, and civics: Broadening governance in the 21st century
Mary K. Ryan, Virginia Tech University
This paper explores civic engagement in primarily nonpolitical spheres as a process of engaged citizenship. Specifically, this paper examines the role of surveillance through the process of sousveillance in the United States. Sousveillance is the recording of an activity by a participant in the activity who is usually wearing a portable personal technology device. This paper explores the ethical ramifications of individuals taking on the process of social change by and for themselves. Finally, this paper analyzes how sousveillance may help and hinder civic and communal life, acknowledging questions of personal sovereignty within democratic governance.
The hidden human rights curriculum of surveillance cameras in schools
Lotem Perry-Hazan, University of Haifa; Michael Birnhack, Tel Aviv University
The paper explores how Closed Circuit TV systems (CCTVs) are integrated in educational practices and analyzes the implications of these practices on schools’ hidden human rights curriculum. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with school principals and municipal officials, we identify three approaches: semi-legal disciplinary procedures; real-time surveillance of students; and an inverted use of the CCTVs as a mechanism of producing trust, by refraining from gathering disciplinary evidence. These approaches shape the schools’ hidden human rights curriculum, by which students learn about due process, privacy, and autonomy and about the power relations that shape the scope of these rights.
The Venezuelan unrule of law: A “normative profile” analysis
Levy R. Farias, Universidad Central de Venezuela
Research about urban violence in Venezuela show an appalling state of things in relation to human rights and the rule of law: a skyrocketing number of homicides, all kinds of corruption, widespread impunity, lynchings, and even children that want to be delinquents (malandros) or prison leaders when they grow up. Drawing on the current knowledge about the development of moral reasoning and its relation with the law, this paper addresses the Venezuelan case in terms of “normative or institutional profiles”, an analytical tool that could be also useful in other Latin American countries or social contexts.
J4.1 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Symposium: Embodied cognition and ethical environments in professional counseling
Chair: Morgan E. Kiper Riechel, Mercer University
This symposium will explore the influence of professional work environments on ethical decision-making within the field of professional counseling. The concept of embodied cognition will be explored in relation to ways in which an individual’s interactions with the physical environment provides a conceptual structure.
Ethical decision-making in technology
Kathleen Bazile, Mercer University
Technology mediates one’s interaction with the environment. Many professions push toward greater integration of technology in the work environment especially in helping professions with high degree of interpersonal interaction. While technology in the workplace may increase productivity, it also provides access to opportunities for misconduct and technology-based violations. Situational factors play a strong determinant in ethical behavior. When technology is seen as a situational factor it provides three main arenas (opportunity, psychological distance, and cultural lag) that affect an individual’s ethical behavior. This presentation will review current literature and discuss implications technology has on ethical decision-making.
Agency policy and ethical communities
Lucy Elliott Roberts, University of Alabama
Professional agencies establish policies in order to govern the operations as well as the behaviors within the organization. Emphasis is given to ethical standards as a necessity “to protect clients, guide professionals, safeguard the autonomy of the professional workers, and enhance the status of the profession” (Mappes, 1985). Although individuals are autonomous in behavior, it is the responsibility of the organization to substantiate the contextual environment by which individuals make ethical decisions. This presentation will draw upon relevant literature, and consider ethical dilemmas generated by policies, that influence the ethical environment within professional organizations.
Gut instinct, moral intuition and cognition: Neural signatures of professional ethical decision-making
Morgan E. Kiper Riechel, Mercer University
Professionals who serve the public must place the interests of clients over the self. Despite this obligation to the public welfare, which seems to necessitate careful consideration of professional issues, many professionals report using “gut instinct” and “intuition” as primary strategies for decision-making. Linear decision-making models intend for consistency of behavioral outcomes, but they may not provide for flexible and adaptive responses to the shifting and often ambiguous contextual factors that professionals face in the field. Current brain-imaging research reveals neural processes involved in professional decision-making that are highly complex, utilizing both intuitive and rational networks within the brain.
K4.1 Social media, activism and marginality
Symposium: Individual differences in civic leaders in Europe: Culture, values, motivations, perspectives
Chair: Slawomir Postek, Academy of Special Education
This symposium is dedicated to discussing the results of study of a group scouting leaders. The individual differences perspective was assumed, and what was tested was the personalities and values system (with a new and unique approach), time perspectives and motivations of the over 1500 leaders in four European countries. The papers invited to the symposium will present (1) the theoretical foundations for the new approach to measuring values, (2) the results of the study globally and (3) the international differences and how they can be explained by cultural differences.
The theory and psychometrics behind the refined approach to measuring values and personality
Magdalena Rowicka, Academy of Special Education
The paper will also cover the construction of a questionnaire measure which was recently published by Schwartz and his collaborators and used in the project covered in the symposium. Psychometrical characteristics will be given for the normalization samples and the sample obtained in the project and the analyses of reliability and accuracy (theoretical & empirical) provided to demonstrate the value of the data obtained with it and possible sources of its contamination. Differences in the structure of values across 9 European countries will be presented and their possible roots discussed.
Civic leaders across Europe: Values, motivations, time perspectives
Slawomir Postek, Academy of Special Education; Jakub Prochíçzka, Masaryk University
The paper will cover the individual differences part of a cross-national, European study of how a) Zimbardo’s Time Perspectives, b) personality (Big Five), c) values and d) the structure of motivation for volunteer work, as independent variables, and d) subjective happiness (Lubomyrsky’s SHS scale) as dependent variable interact in a sample of over 1500 scouting leaders from four European countries. It will demonstrate how Time Perspectives (including TP balance) can act as a moderator, and motivations as a mediator, for a focal predictor combining values and personality with subjective happiness as the explained construct. Both separate mediation and moderation analyses and a global path model (by smallest squares) will be presented and the psychometrics discussed.
Cultural differences as predictors of individual differences in civic leaders in Europe
Urška Mali Kovačič, University of Ljubljana; Magdalena Zarzycka, Leeds University
This presentation aims to present how values of young leaders (despite geographic position and very few parts of common tradition, history, habits and culture) strongly correlate, but still demonstrate important differences. Three Slavic-spoken and one Romance state, two pairs of neighbours (Poland and Czech Republic, Slovenia and Italy), all members of European Union nowadays are presented in the speech. Results are aligned with the findings of the World Values Survey initiative for how the participating states differ culturally on the two dimensions assumed in WVS as constituting the “cultural map of the world”: survival, self-expression and traditional secular-rational. Welzel-Inglehart’s Cultural map will be used in this presentation in order to explain the impact of culture to individual differences and to bring additional global dimension to the studied topic.
L4.1 Social, emotional and moral development
Symposium: Purpose in later life – Toward a cultural revolution
Chair: Michael Lamport Commons, Harvard Medical School
The demands of complex moral social structures are unsustainable without questioning and revising traditional systems. This symposium talks about three unique cases in which this is true: 1) “Changing moral atmosphere in traditional institutions” talks about education systems which produce students who are unable to innovate and take risks. 2) “Moral implications of computer education” talks about how computer run phonics program thwarts the traditional “one size fit all” mentality to serve individual student needs. 3) “Why moral education fails in the long run?” talks about low stage cultural beliefs that adversely affects moral education of people from traditional societies.
Changing moral atmosphere in institutions
Saranya Ramakrishnan, Harvard School of Public Health; Sarthak Giri, Dare Association; Michael Lamport Commons, Harvard Medical School
The moral atmosphere of an educational institution generally refers to the shared values, norms, and meaning systems amongst students. Most traditional school systems tend to have low tolerance for transgressive behavior and high deference to authority, thus promoting and rewarding conformity. This means of training students leads to non-adaptive, risk averse tendencies as adults, that hampers innovation and development in society as a whole. To bring about change educational institutions need to encourage questioning, change the power dynamics between teachers and students, and need to place higher value on innovation and risk taking.
Moral implications of computer education versus traditional education
Dristi Adhikari, Dare Association; Michael Lamport L. Commons, Harvard Medical School
The traditional education has the problem of “one size fits all”. There is no respect for an individual. Despite the overwhelming support and the potential to increase the students’ reading performance by the use of computer-run reading phonics program, the teachers are still very resistant to use the program in their classrooms. Providing support for the computer run education is the moral responsibility of the teachers, especially when traditional classroom education is not showing any progress.
Why “moral education” fails in the long run?
Michael Lamport Commons, Harvard Medical School; Dristi Adhikari, Dare Association
The moral policing of beef consumption in traditional culture has been passed onto generations. This is a very low stage thinking. Traditionalism is an enemy of true moral development. Beef consumption should not be associated with good “morality”. Moral education in traditional societies is pushing people to think low stages over higher stages. It can transfer stages of development from other content to new content.