B1.1 Development of values and purpose
Chair: Doret J. de Ruyter, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
“Am I doing something good?”: Thoughts on the interpretation of “good” in civic engagement
Sieglinde Weyringer, University of Salzburg
The paper investigates several thoughts related to this question, e.g. How is the relationship between the personal wellbeing and the common good? Which aspects have to be taken in consideration for finding a viable appraisal? Which criteria are applicable to prove the postulated viability? The relevance of the presented thoughts will be illustrated by concrete situations, episodes and findings of two studies. The second part of the paper concentrates on the educational challenge the development of relevant evaluation and assessment competences may expose. The third part will present a didactical concept on how the identified competences can be developed.
Educating children to become flourishing citizens– can we?
Doret J. de Ruyter, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Flourishing is generally regarded as an ideal aim of education. However, essential to human flourishing is a minimally (morally) decent society, which in turn requires the contribution of its citizens. Yet, citizenship can enhance human flourishing if people are able to express their civic capacities in a meaningful and worthwhile way.I will first explicate what we might mean by a meaningful and worthwhile expression of citizenship, which I will use to investigate the opportunities and challenges in educating children to become flourishing citizens. This will lead to a mildly optimistic answer to the question in the title.
What about compassion?
Lynne S. Wolbert, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
This paper looks into the relation between human flourishing and the common good as aims of education. De Winter argues that in contemporary aims of education (such as flourishing) the emphasis is on the individual, and therefore aiming for the common good has been neglected. Is human flourishing necessarily individualistic? Is there no attention reserved for the common good or the good of the other person within the confines of the concept of human flourishing? What is the relation between flourishing and compassion? This paper argues that they do not, nor should, necessarily exclude each other.
What are the weights in an index of well-being?
Kristen B. Cooper, Gordon College
A consensus is emerging that well-being is a multi-dimensional object consisting of many potential aspects of well-being. Hence, one natural approach to measuring well-being is to construct an index. This project uses a GDP-like framework to develop a well-being index that is grounded in economic theory. We have developed over 2,000 aspects of well-being for consideration. We conduct a new web survey which combines subjective well-being questions about the levels of aspects, with stated preference questions about trade-offs between the aspects. We investigate how the results of the survey could be used to form a new index of well-being.
C1.1 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall
Chair: Eyrun M. Runarsdottir, University of Iceland
Bullying or defending a victim: The role of class climate and ethnic diversity
Eyrun M. Runarsdottir, University of Iceland
The aim of the study is to explore bullying in Icelandic primary schools in relation to ethnic diversity, class climate and includes ethical values, sense of cohesion and the expressed will to defend bullying victims. A questionnaire was administered to all 11, 13 and 15 year olds present in school (84% response rate, 10651 answers) in 2014. The study reveals that immigrant youth in Iceland perceive the class climate more negatively and are more often involved in bullying than their native peers. The findings will be discussed with a focus on class climate and the civic act of defending fellow students
Bullying, a sociomoral study in Mexican high schools
Sandra Gudino Paredes, Tecnológico de Monterrey; Juan Manuel Fernández Cárdenas, Tecnológico de Monterrey
Through a sequential mixed approach, this study aimed to answer: to what extent are moral behaviors that conform a critical moral personality (Buxarrais, Morillo and Martinez, 2001) addressed by Mexican high school students? what is the bullying level that prevails in Mexican high schools? The sample was composed by 1200 students from three different high schools. In order to answer these research questions, we applied four instruments in the quantitative part and a case study method, with principals and bullying victims in the qualitative part. Results show low bullying levels and a well developed critical moral personality among high school students.
Promotion of social skills, moral development and self knowledge as means to prevent bullying
Laura Bermúdez Jurado, Universidad de La Sabana/ Minnesota State University
Children and teenagers often face conflict situations such as intimidation. To prevent these circumstances, it’s necessary to go beyond the aggressive conducts and promote psychological adjustment factors and pro-social behaviors. This study focuses on promoting positive features of the person, rather than emphasizing on negative conducts. The selected features are Social Skills, Self-knowledge and Moral Competence. The product was the design of a program for a school in Colombia, with Experiential Learning as method. It has a year-round structure, being a continuing process throughout the student’s school-life. The evaluation mechanisms are the experiential dynamics, processing the experience and speech analysis.
E1.1 Theory and critique
Chair: Leonel Perez-Exposito, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
Civic engagement and the depoliticization of civic education
Leonel Perez-Exposito, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
A significant body of literature on civic education (CE) and youth participation has progressively replaced political participation (PP) with categories such as civic engagement. The demotion of PP can also be identified in different programs of CE. Based on an extensive literature review and data from an empirical research in Mexico city’s secondary schools, the paper argues that this tendency reveals a depoliticized approach to CE, which emphasizes an apolitical view on adolescents’ participation and, consequently, a conception of students as depoliticized subjects. An alternative approach to PP is advances in recovering the political character of CE.
Ending an epidemic: The moral responsibility to act against HIV/AIDS
Richelle Joe, University of Central Florida
HIV/AIDS has claimed the lives of 39 million people globally, and another 35 million are currently living with the illness. Affecting people on every continent, save Antarctica, this illness has become an international social justice and human rights issue that tugs at and challenges both the individual and collective moral conscience. In this presentation, the presenter will establish the moral responsibility to act against HIV/AIDS with specific attention to how civic engagement via education, awareness, and involvement in the community, as well as in political processes, can support the efforts to create an AIDS-free generation.
Neoliberalism and civic purposes in education
Lawrence Blum, University of Massachusetts Boston
Market-based/neoliberal approaches to schooling contain several features unfriendly to the civic purposes of education. Blum will focus on the consumerist model of school success; the individualism of that model; its confinement of educational value to preparation of market agents; the hostility to government regulation on behalf of a common good. Civic education arguably requires a mix of student backgrounds in a school. That mix and its civic rationale are opposed or rendered inexpressible by these four features.
Teaching economics by hiding ethics: On economists and civic disengagement in Colombia
Edgar O. Benitez, Icesi University; Jeronimo Botero, Icesi University
Current ways of teaching economics illustrate how professionalizing education can diminish the degree of civic engagement among college students. Our hypothesis is that the pedagogical practices involved in teaching economics usually hide the normative foundations and implications of economics as a science and discipline. We believe that this silencing, albeit involuntary, may promote among students of economics an attitude toward their knowledge completely disconnected from public and civic responsibilities inherent in the discipline. In other words, economists usually do not consider that they have to be accountable for what they do with their power-knowledge in society.
G1.1 Culture and context
Symposium: The Adolescent Intermediate Concepts Measure: Evidence from multiple cultural settings
Chair: Steve Thoma, University of Alabama
The purpose of this symposium is to present a cross-cultural description of responses to the Adolescent Intermediate Concepts Measure (hereafter the AD-ICM). Since its inception 6 years ago the AD-ICM, has been used multiple times in the US, The Republic of Macedonia, Taiwan, and the UK. Focusing on these studies, the proposed symposium presents papers that highlight what has been learned from the measure about adolescent applications of the virtues within these cultures and settings. A final paper will attend to what is common and what is unique to each setting.
The Adolescent Intermediate Concepts Measure
Steve Thoma, University of Alabama
This paper will provide an introduction to the Adolescent Intermediate Concept Measure (AD-ICM). Using data collected in the U.S. The first section will describe the features of the measure as well as the data used to support it. Section two of the paper will be delivered following the other two papers and provides a summary of the findings across settings in order to identify commonalities and differences.
Adolescent moral judgement: A study of junior high school students in Taiwan
Yen-Hsin Chen, National Taichung University of Education; Chi-Shun Lien, National Chung Cheng University
This paper outlines the result from a study of 21 high schools of various types across different regions in Taiwan using a version of the Intermediate Concept Measure for Adolescents. Moral dilemmas were used to assess moral judgment in terms of virtue-like concepts of “self-discipline”, “honesty” and “courage”. The study involved 1,436 junior high school students (aged 14 and 15) who completed the moral dilemma survey. Results suggest that Taiwanese students did particularly well on this measure in comparison to students from other countries, with some interesting differences in their responses.
Adolescent moral judgement: A study of secondary school students in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
David Ian Walker, University of Birmingham
Final results are outlined from a study of 39 UK schools using the Intermediate Concept Measure for Adolescents. Students” average scores on the dilemmas tests were low, suggestive of tendencies towards “self-interest”, “not getting involved” and “conformity/loyalty to friends”. The paper argues that future efforts to improve moral judgment among adolescents ought to buck the trend for character / moral education, in terms of challenging its tendency to emphasize positives to the detriment of exploring in detail poor choices, reasons and their consequences.
H1.1 Media and curricula workshop
Authors-meet-critics: Dilemmas of educational ethics
Jacob Fay, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Meira Levinson, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Peter Levine, Tufts University; Magdalene Lampert, Teacher Education Design Consultant; Winston Thompson, University of New Hampshire; Ana Carolina Brito, Cristo Rey Boston High School
We propose an authors-meet-critics session regarding our forthcoming book, Dilemmas of Educational Ethics: Cases and Commentaries. In this book, we advance a novel interdisciplinary approach to developing practical wisdom in education. Drawing on Aristotle’s notion of phronesis—the practical understanding of how to act in particular circumstances—we call this approach phronetic inquiry. The purpose of this session is to introduce our work in conversation with critical comments about the ideas, methods, and implications of this work.
I1.1 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Chair: Adam A. Brodie-Mckenzie, University High School
Developing pedagogical and democratic citizenship competencies: “Learning by Participating” Program
Ana Del Toro, Via Educacion/Harvard Graduate School of Education; Mariali Cardenas, Via Educacion
It is well known that the teaching and learning of democratic citizenship requires going beyond the acquisition of factual knowledge, to include the development of skills and dispositions that enable the individual to effectively contribute to the construction of a more democratic and just society. How can teachers generate the pedagogical conditions that enable their students to develop competencies that truly help them become active citizens? This presentation describes a Program that has been successful in accomplishing that objective. Quasi-experimental research of the program showed significant improvement in teacher competencies for civic pedagogy. A statistically significant positive effect was observed for students with regard to civic knowledge and skills, as well as on decision-making and participation in school.
Civitas: A program for moral education based on fraternity in Brazil
Glaucya L. Lino, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Maria Sucupira Lins, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Micheleni Márcia de Souza Moraes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Bruna Rodrigues Cardoso Miranda, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
This program focuses the activities for Moral Education based on fraternity as a political category. This program aims to help build young people’s character and to give them opportunities to develop as good citizens actively committed to their local community. This program started in Brazil in 2007, with groups in ten states of the country and in the federal district. Its method consists of discussions, social activities and field classes. The experience demonstrated the importance of educating youth to participate in their community. We can conclude that this program has had good results for young people’s Moral Education.
Investigating the role of diverse schooling models upon the critical consciousness and commitment to social action of marginalized adolescents
Scott C. Seider, Boston University; Jalene Tamerat, Boston University; Shelby Clark, Boston University
Critical consciousness can be defined as the ability to analyze the oppressive social forces shaping one’s life and the commitment to challenge such forces through collective social action. Prior research has demonstrated critical consciousness to be a positive predictor of adolescents’ health, academic, vocational, and civic outcomes, but relatively little is known about the processes by which critical consciousness is fostered or developed. The present study considers the role that schools may play in such processes through a longitudinal, mixed methods study of adolescents attending five different urban charter high schools that take different pedagogical approaches to this work.
Harnessing self-knowledge to create community builders in a diverse secondary school
Adam A. Brodie-Mckenzie, University High School; Alex M. Louie, University High School; Caterina A. Pacitti, University High School
Ethical understanding, creative and critical thinking are integral capabilities to the Australian Curriculum and vital to students becoming engaged citizens. With a growing focus on student-led learning, the University High School has developed a program for Year 8s (13-14 year olds) that emphasises empathy and belonging as key components to explore these capabilities and promote students’ efficacy and agency. The program meets students at their level, engaging individual interests. It emphasises the connection between these individual interests and the broader community, culminating in a creative expression of making a difference, embedded within personal meaning.
J1.1 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Chair: James M. Noonan, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Educating ethical engineers and citizens
Patricia Jimenez, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso; Jimena Pascual, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso; Felix Gonzalez, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso
This proposal aims to explore the way engineering professors and students understand the meaning of citizenship competencies delivered through several subjects in a Chilean Engineering School. Although engineering education traditionally has placed a strong emphasis on scientific and technical training of its students, rather than certain knowledge and skills related to the role of these professionals in a broader look, engineering students and professionals are becoming aware of their role in human development. The question is: Can training citizenship competencies lead engineering students to a better and deeper understanding of their role in the desired social transformation?
Re-defining ethics and citizenship competences at Tecnológico de Monterrey
Pablo Ayala, Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey; Georgina Serna, Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey
The Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey seeks to form leaders with internationally competitive entrepreneurial and human spirit. In order to reach greater effectiveness in achieving this objective, the institution is redesigning its educational model, opting for student-centered training, aimed at forging competences, where learning challenges is the central teaching strategy. Ethics and citizenship education is an essential piece of this commitment and the objective of this paper is to account for the process of re-formulation, consultation and validation of ethical and civic skills with the academic community.
[Canceled] Reframing professional development as a civic good using deliberative democracy
James M. Noonan, Harvard Graduate School of Education
For decades, researchers have viewed professional development (PD) as a tool for instructional improvement. However, despite its promise, PD is widely perceived as unevenly effective. In this conceptual paper, I suggest one reason for the gap between its potential and perceived ineffectiveness is a persistent alignment with a sociopolitical framework prioritizing efficiency. Drawing on a survey of empirical and theoretical literature, I apply a lens of political theory to propose an alternative deliberative framework to expand conceptions of effective PD. Moreover, I argue that deliberative learning environments are liable to be not only more effective but more civically desirable.
Peace building: An analysis through the lens of acts and levels of social perspective coordination
Zehavit Gross, School of Education, Bar-Ilan University
The aim of this research is to analyze the developmental processes that occur between Palestinian and Jewish students in a conflict resolution course in a university setting in light of Selman’s stages of role-taking ability. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss & Corbin,1997), this article will analyze the reactions of Israeli Arab (8) and Jewish (13) university students (ages 19 to 25) to an exercise which formed one unit in a university intervention program. The research provides evidence for Robert Selman’s developmental outline of role-taking ability progression, both at the individual and the group level.
K1.1 Social media, activism and marginality
Chair: Luciana K. de Souza, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Disposition of youth protest: Analysis of legal and Illegal protest using ICCS-2009
Cristóbal Villalobos, Catholic University of Chile; Consuelo Bejares, Catholic University of Chile; Ernesto Treviño, Catholic University of Chile
One common form of expression of conflicts is protest. This paper analyzes the willingness of youth to participate in legal and illegal protests and the possible explanatory factors of this disposition as a way to understand the effect of the school in youth political participation. The study uses data from ICCS 2009. The methodology used is a multilevel model in three levels: countries, schools and students. The results show the relevance of socio-cultural context in the disposition to participate in protests, the centrality of the school governance and the importance of the sociopolitical background students.
Donation and moral psychology
Luciana K. de Souza, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
This study is a literature review on donation in order to identify themes for scientific investigations in the field of moral psychology in Brazil. We identified 49 scientific articles in scientific journals published in the country. Data was analysed using thematic analysis, with the support of NVivo software. The analyses helped build seven core themes. Moral psychology literature supported data interpretation, with emphasis on aspects such as benevolence, moral virtues and the social-cognitive processes that move them.
Supporting civic and political development among Latino youth
Heather Malin, Stanford University
Thriving of individuals and groups depends on their capacity to effect political change, yet some groups in the U.S., such as Latino youth, are politically marginalized. We examined civic engagement and motivations among Latino youth to identify avenues to support them in developing their political capacity. High school seniors completed civic engagement surveys (n = 1,579) and participated in an interview (n = 50). Results suggest that Latino youth were motivated to engage in civic activities that impact their family and immediate community, and the most engaged Latino youth developed political capacity and commitment through participation in community organizations.
Teaching music in prisons: Creating artistry, changing lives
Jamie T. Hillman, Gordon College
Quantitative research links the participation of incarcerated individuals in the arts to significantly reduced recidivism rates. The presenter will share his qualitative research and experience teaching music and the arts in two Massachusetts prisons. Using music as a vehicle to create a classroom of compassion, creativity, friendship, learning, and humanity, the prisoner-students are empowered to express themselves and make a meaningful contribution to society. The presenter argues that this powerful combination of engaged artistic work, process-based pedagogy, and the compassionate social justice frame is also a desirable paradigm outside prison walls.