Concurrent Sessions 1.2: 10:30 AM – 12:00 PM

A1.2 Pedagogy, values and goals
Larsen G08

Chair: David C. Lundie, Liverpool Hope University

Interdisciplinarity in the public school: Social function
Valquiria M. Viscaino, Public City Hall School

This research arose from a concern about the role of schools in the world of uncertainties. In addition, a concern fits theoretical and methodological basis of the research project discipline of the specialization course in Ethics, Values and Citizenship, offered by UNIVESP – EACH – USP East (2012). Everything around us has changed, new generations are increasingly connected to the digital world, and our schools continue with obsolete paradigms. The purpose of presenting this research is to ensure that Interdisciplinarity, besides integrating the different disciplines and promoting the most effective pedagogical work, it encourages social projects that result in true school function.

Dewey’s Potential Contribution to Virtue Ethics in ITE
Oliver B. Bridge, Oxford Brookes University

The current paper is a philosophical discussion of how the parallels between Dewey’s pragmatism and virtue ethics, which forms the basis of the newly emerging trend in moral education philosophy, can contribute to ITE regarding moral education. Parallels between the two philosophies are discussed mainly in relation to complementary concepts regarding the development of the moral self and practical wisdom. It is argued that reading Dewey alongside Aristotle in teacher training can better equip teachers with the philosophical tools to foster students’ moral development. The paper draws on reports from the UK, USA, and Turkey concerning the problems in ITE.

Pre-service teachers’ reflections on values
Alfred Weinberger, Private University of Education of the Diocese of Linz; Angela Gastager, University of Education of Styria

Teacher training aims at supporting the pre-service teachers to clarify their values and to promote professional values of teaching. The research questions are: 1) What values do pre-service teachers consider important with regard to their teaching? 2) How do pre-service teachers define the values they personally consider important? 3) How do they put these values into practice? 4) How do cognitions and affects interact in situations of values conflicts? 135 pre-service teachers took part in the exploratory study. Three instruments were used. The results indicate a large heterogeneity of values. Implications for teacher education are discussed.

The development of new teachers’ understandings of “fundamental British values”
David C. Lundie, Liverpool Hope University; Philip Bamber, Liverpool Hope University

Based on multi-method analyses of a course on wider global perspectives in a teacher education program in England, this paper examines the development of teachers’ relationship to the teaching of Fundamental British Values. These values, enumerated in the National Teachers’ Standards and embedded in inspection policy, are a relatively new development and have been subject to criticism for their links to a security and counter-terrorism agenda. Findings suggest the emergence of a more complex relationship between professional duties and personal values among new teachers as they engage reflectively with Fundamental British Values during teaching experience.

B1.2 Development of values and purpose
Larsen 203

Chair: Ulisses F. Araujo, University of Sao Paulo

Principles and methods to guide an education for purpose
Ulisses F. Araujo, University of Sao Paulo; Valeria Arantes, University of Sao Paulo

We seek to  build educational models consistent with principles that advocate the need to promote an education of civic virtues, aimed at strengthening citizenship and the construction of purpose. This paper’s goal is to present some experiences that are being developed in Brazil over the last 6 years to form teachers-in-service and teacher candidates using Problem and Project-Based Learning (PPBL) and the Design Thinking (DT) as a method in curriculum development. These programs have been implemented at the University of Sao Paulo and also at the Virtual University of Sao Paulo and has reached over 3.000 teachers.

Prosocial purpose in early adolescence: How schools support its development
Heather Malin, Stanford University; Robert Borah, Stanford University; Kathleen Remington, Stanford University

Prosocial purpose is an important achievement in moral development and educators are seeking information about how best to help students develop it. We surveyed 1,349 eighth graders, and interviewed 98 of them, to learn about the relationship between prosocial purpose and the supports for goal pursuit that students experience at school. Findings suggest that schools did support students in developing prosocial purpose, but different types of support were helpful in different phases of purposeful goal pursuit. Students who already had prosocial goals did not find support for those goals in the classroom but looked to extracurricular and community programs instead.

Teaching kids to care: A needs-based intervention to increase ethical sensitivity in schools
Rebecca S. Friedman, Johns Hopkins University

The purpose of this study was to increase the degree of ethical sensitivity among 4th and 5th grade students at a private school in Baltimore, MD. The ethical sensitivity intervention consisted of research-based best practices corresponding to four sub-skills of ethical sensitivity: Reading and Expressing Emotion, Taking the Perspective of Others, Controlling Social Bias, and Communicating Well. Research has shown that film, photographs, role-taking and cooperative learning opportunities can be successfully utilized in an effort to affect such change.

Influence of teachers’ competence for purpose on students’ purpose development
Fei Jiang, Northeast Normal University; Shan Lin, Northeast Normal University; Jenni Menon Mariano, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee

This paper examines the influence of Chinese college students’ perceived teacher competence for purpose on students’ purpose development. Portions of the Revised Youth Purpose Survey were adapted and administered among 52 teachers and 213 students in China. There was inconsistency between teachers’ self-evaluations and students’ evaluations with teachers rating themselves more purpose supportive. Upperclassmen reported higher levels of teacher competence, and arts teachers were rated more supportive. Students with other-oriented goals as their most important purposes rated their teachers more competent. Significant associations were found among students’ ratings of teacher competence and students’ likelihood of purpose search and purpose identification.

C1.2 Character education and civic competences
Askwith Lecture Hall

Chair: Jennifer B. Urban, Montclair State University

A critically compassionate approach to education for civic engagement
Thomas A. Lucey, Illinois State University; Mary Frances Agnello, Akita University; James D. Laney, University of North Texas

This presentation proposes a method for preparing teacher candidates to educate for civic engagement. Founded on principles of care, this process fosters a compassionate sense of personal self-worth with candidates. Through a sense of inner care, candidates develop a sense of self-appreciation not dependent on social controls and based in experience promoting a sense of empathy towards other people that they in turn can develop in their classrooms.

Developing the next generation of engaged youth through character education
Jennifer B. Urban, Montclair State University; Miriam R. Linver, Montclair State University

Character education programs that focus on helping youth identify and reflect on positive personal values and transform those values into meaningful, sustained action hold tremendous promise for avoiding the pitfalls of adolescence and young adulthood and producing a generation of youth who are able to demonstrate moral fortitude and thrive in today’s complex, global world. Inspire>Aspire: Global Citizens in the Making (I>A) is one such promising program. I>A has been implemented in over 60 countries reaching around 100,000 youth ages 10-18. This paper presents the theory of change for I>A and results of a process and pilot outcome evaluation.

Ethics of virtues and ethics of care: An educational approach
Luigina Mortari, University of Verona; Marco Ubbiali, University of Verona

Starting from Ricoeur’s conception distinguishing ethics (teleological perspective) and moral (deontological), we linked it with the ethical vision of Plato-Socrates (educational action) and Aristotle (ethics of virtues). Our project proposes an original interpretation of ethical education: a form of Education to the Ethics of Virtues according to the Philosophy of Care. The core question of the project is: “How can we orient the person to pay attention to virtues, and reflect about the value they can assume in order to realize a good quality of life?”. The methods we use with children to answer this question are: conversations, narratives, actions.

MELARETE and PEECh: An international ethics and virtues education collaboration
Luigina Mortari, University of Verona; Michael D. Burroughs, Penn State University

This paper will focus on a research collaboration between the MELARETE Project (Verona, Italy) and the Philosophical Ethics in Early Childhood (PEECh) project (State College, PA, USA). The MELARETE Project derives its name from two Greek terms (melete, or care, and arête, or virtue) and develops a theory of care and virtues based education program for children in grades 4-5. The Philosophical Ethics in Early Childhood (PEECh) project aims to better understand young children’s ability to recognize and distinguish ethical concepts and explore the effectiveness of children’s literature and extension activities for fostering ethical development in young children.

D1.2 Narrative, story and history
Longfellow 319

Turtles, sandboxes, and games: Social emotional development through stories
Ralph Singh, Wisdom Thinkers Network; Steward Amell, Sandy Creek Central Schools
Chair and Discussant: Darcia Narvaez, University of Notre Dame

Do we need a new myth? Wisdom Thinkers works to create a shared narrative moving from in-school story based SEL curriculum to community engagement. The session will explore the link between spirituality, narrative, morality, and civic engagement – specifically using traditional wisdom stories, both sacred and secular, to help children develop their own story to change both their behavior and the world around them. We will share case studies with video and personal testimonials, to show the impact of simple practical applications in use over the past 4 years, in a regional effort to change a culture of poor rural America.

E1.2 Theory and critique
Longfellow 228

Chair: Houman Harouni, Harvard Graduate School of Education/American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Citizenship education in Brazil: Philosophical, sociological, psychological and educational perspectives
Gabriel Goldmeier, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Civic education is needed to improve justice in Brazil. A proposal towards this depends on (i) a definition of justice based on liberal egalitarians (Rawls), communitarians (Sandel), multiculturalists (Bhabha), and feminists (Young) ideas; (ii) historical and sociological reflections of Brazil, and data comparison based on empirical social choice (Alesina); (iii) moral psychology studies (Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan) associated with liberal proposals on education (Dewey, Freire, Gutmann); and (iv) reflections based on schools’ empirical observations. Even if ambitious, the intention of this text is to show that different fields must be connected if a feasible project of justice is to be achieved.

Education and social change: Venezuela’s adult education missions
Maura Duffy, University of Manchester

In Latin America, dissatisfaction with the institutions and processes of neoliberal democracy has led to a search for alternatives based on more direct and participatory forms of citizen engagement. These alternatives have overtly pedagogical dimensions, with state-led education seen as a vital means for developing critical consciousness, instilling new norms and values and promoting radical social change. While many theorists ask if critical literacy within a state-based education system is an oxymoron, this paper uses the Venezuelan case to illustrate both the possibility and limitations of state-led projects to build more protagonist, participatory forms of engagement.

The uses and abuses of Paulo Freire in education
Houman Harouni, Harvard Graduate School of Education/American Academy of Arts and Sciences

For decades, Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed has remained an emblem of politically committed education. This paper uses a historical, philosophical and anthropological lens to argue that the global reception of Freire’s work has always gone hand-in-hand with a strong rejection of his framework, method or aspirations by those to whom he hoped to speak. The paper argues that this rejection rises out of Freire’s struggle with key contradictions in the ideal of political education. Finally, drawing on the author’s practice in academia and community organization, the paper offers a new approach to Freire’s writings that overcomes these contradictions.

Human rights in basic education: Analysis of Brazilian curriculum guidelines
Monique Maiques De Souza Alves Rezende, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Talita Adão Perini de Oliveira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Glaucya Maria Lopes Lino, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Maria Sucupira Lins, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

This paper aims to describe how the official document “National Basic Education Guidelines”, particularly the chapter about Education in Human Rights (2012) understands ethics and the teaching of ethics to children. The Methodological approach is Paul Ricoeur’s hermeneutic interpretation (1977). Theoretical foundation was Aristotle’s study about virtues and Alasdair MacIntyre’s philosophy. Jean Piaget’s contribution is also important for this analysis because of his explanation about children’s moral judgment. The conclusion is that to teach “human rights” a teacher needs to work with values of solidarity, justice and equality. According to this document, moral values are the beginning of Human Rights.

F1.2 China: civic and moral education
Gutman 440

Chair: Chen Chen, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Morality in China vs. the West: Lay concepts and challenges
Emma E. Buchtel, The Education University of Hong Kong; Yanjun Guan, Durham University; Yanjie Su, Peking University

What does it mean to “be moral” in culturally and linguistically distant human societies? We report research comparing lay prototypes of “immoral behavior” and “moral character” in China and the West. Data from university students and other adults across greater China, Canada, Australia, and the USA suggest that civility and morality are highly related in the minds of Chinese participants, while deemphasizing universal principles and prevention of harm, compared to Western participants. We discuss whether culturally different concepts of morality as character virtue (China), versus absolute rules for behavior (West), may explain the data.

Responsibility from Confucianism and active citizenship cultivation in China
Ruifang Xu, East China Normal University

Responsibility is a value perceived as important in citizenship education. Confucianism carries the unfathomable wisdom of responsibility. Firstly, some key Confucian concepts that shed light on responsibility in its individual, interpersonal, national and international dimensions will be examined. All members of society are responsible for contributing their share for the common good. The paper will demonstrate why we should cultivate responsibility and its meaning for active citizens and why we should learn this value from Confucianism and not from the west. Finally, the ways to cultivate active citizenship via use of the resources of responsibility from Confucianism, will be outlined.

Romantic transference from hard science to social concepts: A randomized control trial study
Chen Chen, Harvard Graduate School of Education

This is a randomized, controlled trial study to examine how likely students are to spontaneously transfer from science knowledge to social ideas in the lay domain. Around four hundred freshmen from a Chinese college were randomly assigned into groups to receive lecture on either entropy or self-organization (both are thermodynamic theories) and to fill out pre and post surveys. Preliminary result shows students in entropy group are more likely to support government control and intervention (e.g. licensing Uber drivers), while those in self-organization group more likely to support free market.

G1.2 Culture and context
Larsen 214

Symposium: Cultivating moral eyes: Bridging the knowledge-action gap of privilege and injustice
Chair: Sharlene Swartz, Human Sciences Research Council/University of Cape Town

How best can university students be helped to bridge the gap between recognising or knowing about unearned privilege and injustice, and taking action to transform the situation? This was the problem which a qualitative research study focussed on four African universities chose to address. The specific issues dealt with were ethnic and political privilege in Sierra Leone, language privilege in Cameroon, racial privilege in South Africa and religious and ethnic privilege in Nigeria. Research methods used included face to face interviews, a labelling activity, use of vignettes to elicit responses and a written reflection on personal privilege. In total 72 university students participated in the study. Besides highlighting a range of issues of injustice, this study uses a postcolonial conceptual-contextual framework that recognises the impact of the past on the present and promotes a theory of change based on geo-location and understandings of social solidarity, recognition and restitution to inform and promote social justice through moral education. Paper 1 (Arogundade) considers the usefulness of the notion of “restitution” and reports on how students understand, interpret and apply the term. Nyamnjoh (Paper 2) offers way in which a restitutive framework scaffolds the gap and provides intermediary steps between knowing and acting on moral issues in concrete ways. Breakey (Paper 3) describes how students consider privilege to be “a spider’s web” and how those who are privileged need to articulate its effects and come up with ways of how it could be disrupted, rather than expecting those who are victims of unearned privilege to tell them what to change. Paper 4 (Bokarie) tackles the difficult issue of why victims are reluctant to labels themselves as such, and reflects on the issue of forgiveness (on whose terms and under what conditions) and how the term “victim” can provoke action towards a more just society. THIS RESEARCH STUDY WAS FUNDED BY THE INAUGURAL RESEARCH GRANT OF THE JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION TRUST.

Making good: How speaking of restitution helps to address unjust privilege
Emma Arogundade, University of Cape Town

How useful is it to speak of restitution in relation to injustices both past and present? By asking students about their understandings of the word restitution, and discussing two stories as allegories of restitution, this study got to grips with (a) the varying meanings of the term restitution; (b) obstacles to restitution; (c) ideas for restitution and (d) a future without restitution. These findings demonstrate that in all country contexts, there is clearly a need to address past injustices, but participants are unclear about how to go about it. A nuanced definition of restitution which is not about restoration, but rather “making right” (or “making good” as Swartz, 2016 describes it) is required that has possibilities for an action oriented model able to work across contexts and at different levels.

The hands can’t hit what the eyes can’t see: Theorising restitutive change as a relation between knowledge and action
Anye Nyamnjoh, University of Cape Town

When determining the possibilities for social restitution, it is often realised that one reason injustice persists is because people fail to act despite knowing about injustice. We implicitly assume that knowledge of injustice creates obligations to remedy injustice. This paper engages this phenomenon by considering how students (as subjects of change) understand the relationship between knowing about privilege and injustice and doing something about it. Participants agree that knowing about injustice is necessary for change but is ultimately insufficient as knowledge does not always elicit action. This paper accounts for the knowledge-action gap in these countries. Furthermore, the concept of “everyday actions” is developed as a remedy to this gap.

Tracing spider webs: The internal rot of the privileged
Jessica Breakey, University of Witwatersrand

What is the role of the privileged regarding the goal of social restitution? In discussing inequality and discrimination, students in all four contexts understand “privilege” not just economically, but politically and socially as well. Concerning the role of the privileged, participants acknowledge that those who have been privileged by injustice need to do more than simply acknowledge their privilege. Many of the respondents who identified as “victims” continued to blame the privileged for the continued injustices in their society but believed it was not their responsibility to outline what role the privileged should play in the restitution project, often seeing it as an added injustice. This shows that the privileged need to engage in a journey of reflexivity where they flesh out for themselves their obligations toward restitution.

Accepting defeat or provoking action? The moral role of victims in injustice
Abioseh Bokarie, University of Western Cape; Sharlene Swartz, Human Sciences Research Council/University of Cape Town

What is the moral role of those who are victims are injustice? Is accepting the label victim an indication of weakness and powerless and a moniker of stigma, or is there a role to be played by victims? In what ways do victims of injustices possess the agency to choose to undertake actions that can enable them to transcend beyond their victimization, and encourage others to participate in restitutionary programmes? Engaging with students on these questions reveals different understandings of victimhood and roles for victims such as forgiveness, acknowledging one”s victimhood, and becoming a resister of injustice.

H1.2 Media and curricula workshop
Gutman G05

The Arthur Interactive Media (AIM) Buddy Project: Design, implementation, evaluation
Lacey J. Hilliard, Tufts University; Mary Haggerty, WGBH Educational Foundation; Gentry Menzel, WGBH Educational Foundation

This presentation introduces an innovative educational initiative by children’s media experts and developmental researchers. We will describe the creation, implementation, and evaluation of a supplemental elementary school curriculum designed to promote character and civic engagement through interactive media and cross-age buddy pairs. Audience members will be introduced to five interactive games and comics based on characters and storylines from the television series Arthur and focused on promoting empathy, honesty, forgiveness, generosity, and learning from others. We will present the curriculum materials as well as findings based on the evaluation in a nine-school comparative and longitudinal research study.

I1.2 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Longfellow 320

Symposium: “Case for Space”: Global perspectives on the enabling environment for youth development
Chair: Amy Cheung, Harvard Graduate School of Education

We present the “Case for Space” project, a convening of 18 young researchers from across the globe who jointly explored the central question “What is the enabling environment (necessary conditions and structures) that ensures children and young people have access to their rights, can influence decisions, and have improved livelihoods?” Following the convening, participants undertook research projects in their local context related to questions of participation, protection and livelihoods. We present 4 papers emerging from this project: Asian American adolescents and mental health, young activists in Mexico City, feminist activists in Brazil and young women working in urban India.

Youth participation in an environment of harassment: The case of Mexico City
Rocío del Carmen González Ramírez, National Autonomous University of Mexico

Youth participation in Latin America tends to be supported and visualized only when it occurs through formal NGO processes or maybe through single activism, but it is rarely supported and protected when it comes from informal organizations. When this lack of support is combined with high levels of corruption and organized violence, informal activism becomes a high risk activity because harassment comes from both illegal and government actors. In this work, we will visualize the challenges that Mexican informal young activists face, as well as the strategies that they have learned for remaining safe and critical of these dangerous environments.

Young sexual and reproductive health rights activists in Rio de Janeiro: Trying to achieve policy dialogue
Ani Phoebe Hao, FRIDA The Young Feminist Fund/New York University

This research focuses on how youth in civil society organizations position themselves to achieve their goals related to reproductive rights, particularly in achieving dialogue with policymakers. The mobilization of young people for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) gives insight into young activists” perception of democracy, social equity and health in the Brazilian context. This qualitative research found that young SRHR activists in Rio de Janeiro are entirely young feminists, and that their activism is significantly challenged by the stigma of SRHR, an overall lack of information about SRHR – including by activists themselves – and a lack of civil society infrastructure that supports SRHR.

Societal and cultural transition: Factors influencing young Indian urban women’s economic and social participation
Roli Mahajan, Freelance journalist

As the economic participation of women in India is increasing, more women are moving out their homes for work, and interacting with public spaces in ways not experienced before. In some cases, this economic and geographic transition is causing tensions and unsafe conditions, while society adjusts to women moving out of their traditional, domestic roles. Consequently, increasing instances of violence against women in India are influencing young urban women”s participation in the economic and social aspects of life. This research delves into factors which influence young Indian urban women’s economic and social participation and issues of protection related to the safety and personal rights of women.

Civic engagement as a protective factor against academic stress among Asian American adolescents
Amy Cheung, Harvard Graduate School of Education

In an exploratory interview-based study of 17 Asian American adolescents and 6 youth workers, academic stress emerged as a foremost threat to mental well-being of Asian American youth. Asked about factors supporting their well-being, youth identified their participation in civic and community groups as a protective factor and described a sense of belonging with peers and sense of accomplishment working with others on community projects as particularly empowering. Findings suggest that for youth, civic engagement might be a way to counteract academic stress and that participation in community organizations specifically can support a sense of well-being, even when mental health is not a specific programmatic component.

J1.2 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Larsen G01

Chair: Jan Boom, Utrecht University

Against all odds: About the pedagogical ethos of vocational in-company trainers
Sarah Forster-Heinzer, University of Zurich (2016 Dissertation Award Recipient)

Ethos is generally accepted to be an important aspect of professionalism. In empirical research, the concept is, however, often missed. In this presentation ethos is defined as an active commitment to the underlying professional responsibilities and its efforts to create an environment, supporting a positive development of the cared-for persons. An instrument was developed consisting of four scenarios describing professional training situations that are conflicted by other interests. Totally, 606 vocational trainers were questioned. Results showed that trainers with a higher pedagogical ethos also showed a higher commitment to their pedagogical responsibility. Moreover, a strong situational effect was found.

Moral education and professional integrity
Michael E. Pritchard, Western Michigan University; Elaine E. Englehardt, Utah Valley University

We need to trust professionals to behave reliably even when they are not being watched. However, many moral psychologists question whether appeals to character and virtue can offer us much reassurance. They contend that our behavior is a function of local, situational factors rather than robust character traits.We reply that, although situational factors should be acknowledged, robust moral traits within professional life are both needed and attainable. These traits might be evident outside this context as well, but this is not necessary. (E.g., an honest professional might nevertheless cheat at cards or golf.)

[Canceled] Non-violent communication reconsidered– An approach to teacher ethos?
Karin Heinrichs, University Bamberg

Teachers’ professional ethos is claimed to be a precondition to deal with (moral) conflicts and set up discources in school (Blömeke, Müller & Felbrich 2007; Oser 1998). This paper suggests reconsidering Marshal B. Rosenberg’s approach of non-violent communication to specify teachers’ professional ethos: first, basic attitudes are explained that support developing relationships characterized by mutual appreciation, respect and trust; second, Rosenberg suggests strategies (four steps) for how to deal with conflicts: observation, getting aware of one’s own or others’ emotions, perceiving needs and phrasing a request, and third, Rosenberg’s approach provides ideas for choosing strategies (e.g. discourse or single decision) appropriately.

What are the particular ethical dilemmas faced by Chinese entrepreneurs?
Zhi Liu, Northeast Normal University; Xiaojun Li, Northeast Normal University; Zeqiang Zhang

K1.2 Social media, activism and marginality
Larsen 106

Chair: Sandra Obradovic, London School of Economics and Political Science

Dialogue, deliberation and citizen self-rule in Magdalena Medio– Colombia
Gabriel R. Murillo-Castaño, University of Los Andes

Magdalena Medio in Central Colombia. A vast, complex and paradoxical region. During the past 25 years the people were active in implementing democratic action strategies to improve quality of life with dignity, respect for human rights and peaceful coexistence. This paper reports self-rule experiences of grassroots collective action processes: 1. Educators for peace and development. 2. Culture promotion through theater and arts. 3. From artisan fishing to cacao production for export under civil disobedience. 4. Micro-credit for housewives and domestic calamity-solving. These civic dynamics stem from implementing deliberative workshops that yield public agreements to strengthen civic engagement and empowerment.

LGBTQ activism and student political engagement
Stefanie R. Heinrich, University of Oklahoma

This paper attempts to gage the level of political engagement in existing community LGBTQ organizations, and their relationship to local schools and school-aged members, in Oklahoma, a state known for high numbers of attempted anti-LGBTQ legislation.

Refusing the test: Youth activism, parents’ rights and framing the movement
Terri S. Wilson, University of Colorado Boulder

Through widespread “opt-out” efforts this year, activists have pressured districts, states, and the federal government to reconsider the limits of state-mandated assessments. While often framed in terms of parents’ rights, young people have spearheaded efforts to refuse the tests. These actions may represent a new front in longstanding debates about authority in education. To what extent should young people (and not just their parents) be able to refuse dimensions of public education? This paper explores these philosophical questions in conversation with an empirical study of opt out activism in Colorado.

When civic (dis)engagement means civic solidarity: The case of Serbia
Sandra Obradovic, London School of Economics and Political Science

The present paper discusses the ways civic engagement in transitional democracies can take the form of intentional disengagement and distancing from the world of politics. In contexts where civic engagement carries with it moral compromises, alternative frameworks of morality rationalize and even promote disengagement. Using Serbia as a case study, the issue of disengagement will be discussed as a conscious, agentic and politically meaningful act that allows citizens to dissociate from what they consider to be the residue of a shameful, corrupt and anti-democratic past. In doing so, they are able to affirm a positive sense of national identity.

L1.2 Social, emotional and moral development
Gutman Conference Center Area 3

Chair: Alice Jones Bartoli, Goldsmiths, University of London

Development of emotional literacy and empathy for the elementary school children
Yayoi Watanabe, Hosei University; Yurika Motomura, Hosei University

Although SEL programs are popular at elementary schools , there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates the development of emotional literacy and the relations between emotional literacy and empathy. The aims of this study were to examine the development of emotional literacy and the relations between emotional literacy and empathy. Firstly,  sixth grade students were asked to respond to the questionnaire measuring development of emotional literacy and a scale of empathy. Results showed that girls used much more emotional expressions, and children with high empathy recognized the positive feeling stronger than the negative feeling or a mix of feelings.

Can we teach the complexities of empathy to children?
Milena Batanova, Tufts University; Lacey J. Hilliard, Tufts University; Richard M. Lerner, Tufts University

Whereas many school-based programs seek to develop children’s empathy, assessment remains limited to one or two empathy components. Using mixed method findings from the Arthur Interactive Media (AIM) program, this study sought to validate a multidimensional measure of children’s empathy, and to describe children’s understandings of empathy before and after program participation. Preliminary results indicated an excellent five-factor latent model of empathy, involving emotional awareness, emotional sharing, empathic concern, perspective taking, and caring. However, children’s qualitative understandings were limited. Future waves of the study will be available to provide longitudinal data assessing whether children’s empathy level.

Feeling of empathy and executive functions in children with ADHD
Betânia V. Dell’ Agli, Centro Universitário das Faculdades Associadas de Ensino; Daniela C. J. Silva, Centro Universitário das Faculdades Associadas de Ensino

Children with ADHD usually have problems in social interactions. Empathy is a feeling composed from a repertoire of social skills or social competence. Studies have demonstrated impairment in executive functions. We analyze the relationship between the  feeling of empathy and executive functions in children with ADHD. The study included 19 students, aged 8 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD. There was no correlation between executive functions and results in empathy tests. The data pointed to impairment in the affective dimension of empathy that can be a possible cause of the difficulties in social skills in children with ADHD.

Schools without sanctions: Moral education through emotional development
Alice Jones Bartoli, Goldsmiths, University of London

This paper presents empirical data from two schools for children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. We have developed a school ethos that works without need for sanctions. Changes to ethos were underpinned by evidence from behavioural sciences and neuroscience related to developmental difficulties contributing towards moral and emotional understanding. Schools have been followed for at least one year. Data are presented indicating quantitative improvements in behaviour and well-being; and qualitative changes to teacher and child attitude to behaviour and education. Understanding strengths and weaknesses in emotion processing may be key to effective moral education for children with behavioural difficulties.