Concurrent Sessions 1.5: 3:00 PM – 4:30 PM

A1.5 Pedagogy, values and goals
Larsen G08

Chair: Kalonji L. Nzinga, Northwestern University

Common schools, (Un)common values: Which version of tolerance will be taught in American schools?
Kalonji L. Nzinga, Northwestern University

The cultural, religious and political diversity of American schools has made it hard to teach one set of common values in school. This has led to the development of various “tolerant pedagogies”; curricula designed around the virtues of diversity and moral pluralism. This study compares 4 different “tolerant pedagogies” that have gained traction among educators and educational researchers: 1.)Culturally Responsive Pedagogy 2.)American Civics Education 3.)Ethnic Studies Pedagogy and 4.)Teaching for Open-mindedness. Each pedagogical approach has a different philosophy of tolerance, calling for its own set of norms and behaviors to maintain the order of peaceful coexistence.

Teaching common morality
Timm Triplett, University of New Hampshire

I argue that common morality, as articulated by Bernard Gert, lends itself readily to being taught, even at the elementary school level. Gert’s claim that there is an objective and universal moral system encounters objections from moral relativists and from moral psychologists such as Jonathan Haidt, who argues that there are fundamental differences in individuals’ and groups’ moral orientations. I suggest that such objections are not well founded, and that engaging children in reflections about the nature of and justification for common morality can provide an important tool for moral education and civic engagement.

Philosophy and civic education: The quest for a coherent way of life
Angela M. Duarte, Fundación Sentiido Bogotá

In the face of current developments, it has been said that, by questioning starting assumptions and violent ideas, philosophy can be a source for civic education as it opens the possibility of living a more ethical life. However, philosophy has also been criticized for being a masculine, competitive and even an ethnocentric discipline. How then can its practice result in actual recognition of differences and a more ethical citizenship? This paper is concerned with the coherence between what is said and done when teaching philosophy. It wishes to be able to have a better understanding of its contribution to civic education.

Will system leaders save civic education?
Amelia Peterson, Harvard Graduate School of Education

The international circulation of common metrics and ‘best practices’ is critiqued by many as a ‘globalization’ of schooling that threatens national civic purposes of education. Are public system leaders, who engage in international learning, accelerating or resisting this process? In this paper, I draw on interviews with 25 participants of two international learning communities. Contrary to common perceptions, I find evidence that such interaction bolsters a civic perspective on education, as opposed to a competitiveness perspective. I reflect on contrasts in leaders’ construction of national and ‘global citizenship’, and implications for the future of civic education in schools.

B1.5 Development of values and purpose
Larsen 203

Chair: Daniela Haertel, University of São Paulo

[Canceled] Adolescent girls finding purpose: The role of parents and prosociality
Belle Liang, Boston College; Terese Lund, Wingate University; Angela Mousseau, Rivier University; Renee Spencer, Boston University

Scholars have differentiated other-oriented long-term aims (i.e., a personally meaningful life aim directed at contributing to the world beyond the self) and self-oriented ones (i.e, no intention to contribute beyond the self). Other-oriented purpose is associated with adolescent thriving, yet, little is known about how to foster it among adolescents. This study examined how parent-adolescent relationships may contribute to developing purpose among adolescent girls from high-achieving backgrounds. We will present characteristics associated with fostering other-oriented purpose in our sample of 207 adolescent girls. Moreover, we will demonstrate the mediating role of pro-social behavior. Implications for fostering purpose will be discussed.

Life purpose and tomorrow citizen empowerment
Carmen B. Fabriani, Centro Universitário das Faculdades Associadas de Ensino; Sandra M. Souza, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo; Betânia V. Dell’ Agli, Centro Universitário das Faculdades Associadas de Ensino

The study aims to understand how the integration between high school and technical school helps the construction of a live project and for the development of an autonomous citizen, with critical conscience and a clear view of his/hers place in the world. Youths aspiration were studied, first to have a live project that is based upon choosing targets and  secondly to have a vital project, intent on realizing something that has a personal and community meaning. Our results are different from the youth majority in their desire to participate in community life through actions that transform them into social players.

Youth purpose and happiness – A study based on the Organizing Models of Thinking
Mariana F. Gonçalo, University of São Paulo; Valéria Arantes, University of São Paulo

This study aims to identify and understand the beliefs that young people have in relation to their projections for their future and what they consider happiness. Moreover, we presented a conflict Involving the professional choice and the family’s opinion. The research was based on the Organizing Models of Thinking theory (Moreno et al., 1988) as a theoretical and methodological framework, and also on the concept of purpose developed by William Damon (Damon et al., 2003; Damon, 2008). The data were collected with 120 young students from public schools in the five Brazilian regions.

Purpose: A study on young students’ purposes coping with social vulnerable conditions in the city of São Paulo
Daniela Haertel, University of São Paulo; Ulisses F. Araujo, University of São Paulo

This study aims to investigate the purposes of socially vulnerable youth — students from a public school in the city of São Paulo. According with Damon (2009), there is a strong relationship between the presence of a purpose and the development of a moral personality. Results showed that most young people have a purpose and intend to make some sort of contribution to the world, whether it is to their families, to their communities, or to society. However, most of the young people were unable to imagine the continuity of their purposes in terms of defining strategies to complete them.

C1.5 Character education and civic competences
Gutman Conference Center Area 1

Symposium: Person or situation?: Understanding adult happy victimizers
Chair and Discussant: Tobias Krettenauer, Wilfrid Laurier University

The Happy Victimizer is still of great interest when it comes to adults. Not only the explanation is at issue, but also the normative question of what it implies for education. While some think that Happy Victimizing is caused by a lack of moral motivation call for its being fostered, others suggest that it might also be quite acceptable in situations in which conflicts of interest cannot be overcome. The three papers address different aspects of this general problem and also offer different points of view on the descriptive (i.e. explanatory) as well as the normative issue.

Moral judgement and action in prisoner dilemma situations: Types and behavioral rationales
Gerhard Minnameier, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main; Felicia Kirschbaum, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main; Karin Heinrichs, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg; Tobias Kórner, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg; Hannes Reinke, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg

Given that Happy Victimizing (HV) is widespread among adults the question is how it to explain it. We hold that there are two different types of HVs. One type is basically self-interested; the other is not, but acts in view of situational restrictions. This is illustrated in a Prisoner’s Dilemma setting and investigated empirically. Participants of the reported study had to make decisions, report their feelings and explain why they act and feel as they do. The two types can be clearly revealed. Examples are given, and the results are discussed with respect to their descriptive and normative significance.

Moral decision making in terms of person-situation-interaction: Insights in determinants of the happy-victimizer-pattern in adulthood
Karin Heinrichs, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg; Tobias Kórner, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg; Hannes Reinke, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg; Gerhard Minnameier, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main

Recent studies have confirmed the happy victimizer pattern (HVP) also to emerge in adulthood (Heinrichs et al., 2015; Minnameier & Schmidt, 2013; Nunner-Winkler, 2013). Additionally, the results point to the HVP to be determined by personal as well as situational determinants. In the presented questionnaire study we intended to detect the HVP in systematically varied situations (transgressions of moral rules towards natural persons vs. organizations as victims). We also included scales of personal determinants such as perspective taking, empathy and coping strategies. Finally, the results underline the idea that moral decision-making is influenced by situational as well as personal determinants.

“Happy victimizing” in adulthood: Young adults’ constructions of moral situations
Eveline Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, PH Luzern University of Teacher Education; Brigitte Latzko, University of Leipzig

We present a developmental approach, focusing on emotions as being of key significance in explaining Happy Victimizing in adulthood. From a perspective of narrative (moral) development we argue that individuals’ construction of a situation impact their judgments, emotion attributions, and justifications (person x situation interaction). By using developmentally appropriate assessment, we identify new dimensions (i.e., deontic judgment; own action choice; self-constructed emotion attributions) to explain the complexity of moral functioning in adulthood. The current studies contribute to a theoretical (and methodological framework) that integrates both cognitive and emotional processes to bridge the gap between moral thought, emotion, and action.

D1.5 Narrative, story and history
Longfellow 319

Chair: Michelle Forrest, Mount Saint Vincent University

How engagement with stories can educate the character
Jionette Clyde M. Arawiran, University of Asia & the Pacific

This study emphasizes how engagement in a story may educate the character. Three literary features – conflict, inside view, and point of view – are used to put forward an alternative way of understanding how stories educate the character: engagement. A sample of stories from English textbooks was rated by reading experts to examine conflict, inside view, and point of view. William Steig’s “Doctor de Soto” and Raul Colon’s “The Storm” were discussed to explore how stories can serve as good or deficient resources in character education. Implications of the study on textbook design, classroom instruction, and future research are discussed.

“Sitting alone together”: The Paradox of teaching “bad intentions”
Michelle Forrest, Mount Saint Vincent University; Linda Wheeldon, Acadia University

Despite and because of difference, Frog and Toad are friends. We recount Lobel’s story “Alone” in teaching ethics with ‘bad intentions’, our pedagogical adaptation of Cavarero’s non-indoctrinatory way of writing classical philosophy, used teaching ethics with student-teachers. In “Alone”, Lobel writes with bad intentions ; that is, in defense of and for paradox; for provocation to ethical engagement. We invite participants to read with bad intentions a critical incident in teaching across difference and consider together how to define and practice moral education in an age of radicalization and values relativism. Frog and Toad, sitting alone together.

Ben 10 and conflict resolution styles
Dilian M. Oliveira, Universidade de São Paulo; Eliziane Fernanda Navarro, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso

This research aimed to verify the viewing habits of the participants, analyze the most watched cartoon and verify the conflict resolution styles present in its episodes. Also, to understand the influence of this content in the moral formation of seventy children and young people from six to seventeen years old. A questionnaire was applied to identify the most watched cartoon. Once accomplished – the recording and analysis of two episodes alongside the identification of the most frequent conflict resolution styles – the results showed that in the analyzed cartoon, the strategies of conflict resolution were predominantly aggressive and submissive.

[Canceled] The use of children’s literature to teach forgiveness education to 5th grade students
Suzanne Freedman, University of Northern Iowa

This research aimed to verify the viewing habits of the participants, analyze the most watched cartoon and verify the conflict resolution styles present in its episodes. Also, to understand the influence of this content in the moral formation of seventy children and young people from six to seventeen years old. A questionnaire was applied to identify the most watched cartoon. Once accomplished – the recording and analysis of two episodes alongside the identification of the most frequent conflict resolution styles – the results showed that in the analyzed cartoon, the strategies of conflict resolution were predominantly aggressive and submissive.

E1.5 Theory and critique
Larsen G06

Symposium: Understanding virtue in science: Considering scientists as virtuous citizens
Chair: Timothy Reilly, University of Notre Dame

We examine a variety of conceptions of virtue in science, especially as it relates to citizenship and character formation. We do so through three related papers. The first paper considers the role of scientists as contributors to the scientific community, as organized by considerations of justice. The second paper considers ways in which a richer conception of justice might inform approaches to responsible conduct of research. The third paper emphasizes generosity as it may be demonstrated by scientists in a way that can be taken up by researchers.

The moral education of scientists as citizens: The virtue of justice and the ideal of communality
Emanuele Ratti, University of Notre Dame; Emily Dumler-Winkler, University of Notre Dame

The moral education of scientists as citizens of scientific, national, and global communities has been underexplored. Professional codes of conduct generally do not consider the importance of moral formation and assume that compliance is simply a matter of clarifying the relevant norms. This paper considers how the virtues of justice enable scientists to attain one of the most important aspects of the scientific ethos, namely Robert Merton”s ideal of communality. By cultivating the virtues of justice, scientists not only recognize what they owe to others, but also desire to act justly in light of the shared ideals of communality.

Justice as the central virtue for responsible conduct of research
Dori Beeler, University of Notre Dame; Louise Bezuidenhout, University of Notre Dame

Life science research depends on data integrity as produced in the laboratory. Therefore, how scientists navigate daily routines impacts research ventures and a viable body of knowledge. Despite the similarities of laboratory practices, increasingly rule-focused ethics training is employed for negotiating the problem of governing daily routines. We propose an alternative to teaching responsible conduct of research, with regards to moral education, using the virtue of justice as our central point. With an emphasis on processes and structures, we focus on the self-reflectiveness necessary from scientists. We conclude with the possibilities for a just approach to responsible conduct of research.

Toward an integrated psychological and philosophical conceptualization of generosity in scientists
Timothy Reilly, University of Notre Dame; Nathaniel Warne, University of Notre Dame

Understanding the formation of virtue is a fraught but important endeavor. As such, this paper aims to develop a model of generosity as a virtue, within the practice of science, that is at once psychologically and philosophically coherent. Three aspects of virtue are considered: (1) the doctrine of the mean, (2) the habitual nature of virtue, and (3) virtue as directed toward human flourishing. Corresponding with this, a model of generosity considering the ends toward which generosity is directed, the frequency of various generous activities related to science, and the quality of engagement in such activity. Sample items are presented.

F1.5 China: civic and moral education
Gutman 440

Chair: Weihong Liang, University of Hong Kong

Culturalizing classroom teaching and learning: Proposing a positive scholar engagement model for China’s education reform
Caiping Sun, Nanjing Normal University

With China’s current moral education reform as its case, in perspective of new liberalism, this paper proposes a positive, not resistant, civic engagement model for scholars in a centralized educational system. This positive model provides three mechanisms for scholars: the stipulation of National Curriculum Standards, the compilation of learning materials, the sponsorship of varied teacher training programs and action research projects. Through this model, scholars can turn their expertise to power, soften the propaganda of official knowledge and professionalize frontline teachers. Constructing such a model has three preconditions: a group of trusting scholars, shared interest and university support for scholars.

Human rights education and civic engagement in Chinese secondary schools
Weihong Liang, University of Hong Kong

Human Rights Education (HRE) in Chinese secondary schools integrates with citizenship education, moral education, and political education in a broader sense. It aims to develop students’ perceptions, attitudes, and participation regarding human rights principles in schools settings. This case study focuses on the dynamics and complexity of the interplay between the nation-state, local community and schools in shaping and facilitating students’ perceptions of human rights through HRE. It examines how HRE in secondary schools in China has been conducted and has developed in response to state policies and school initiatives to empower students to learn and exercise human rights.

Teachers’ understanding of value education in classroom teaching: Case study in Mainland China
Xiaoli Wang, School of Education, South China Normal University

Chinese culture has always given the first rank to the function of propagating the doctrine, which still has impact on current educational practice. As the ideal curriculum, the realization of value education depends on the teacher’s understanding and practice. The study aims to explore the teacher’s understanding of the values education that the state required and what values are worth teaching. The findings of qualitative research show that value education is suppressed by the teaching of knowledge in Mainland China. Meanwhile, the ideology education is also  marginalized during the teacher’s practice.

On the enhancing and hindering factors of children’s moral development
Chiuchu Chuang, The University of North Carolina at Pembroke; Qiaohua Wang, Zhejiang Normal University, China

Moral development is an important yet profound procedure which impacts both the quality of individual person’s growth and the moral condition of the entire society. There are many factors either enhancing or hindering children’s moral development. This paper utilizes Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model to discuss and analyze factors of the current moral education in China, including the lack of parental supervision and role model at home, the emphases of academic performance over character cultivation in school, and the absence of influences from people in the neighborhood and community. Suggestions for strengthening Chinese children’s moral education are provided.

G1.5 Culture and context
Larsen 214

Chair: Janine Bempechat, Wheelock College

Explicit and implicit prejudice against homeless people
Silvia H. Koller, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Carlos Nieto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

This study aimed to create explicit and implicit measures of prejudice against the homeless, and to identify factors associated with negative attitudes towards them. A self-report scale was created based on transcultural principles, Item Response Theory and Allport’s scale of prejudice. Evidence of construct validity, convergent validity and good internal consistency were found. Factors associated to prejudice were social dominance, values, egocentrism, sense of insecurity and previous contact with homeless people. The Implicit Association Test found strong associations between conceptions of homeless people and negative stereotypes. Implicit and explicit measures had no correlation, according to other studies on measures of stereotypes.

From informed social reflection to civic engagement: How to be kind
Janet Kwok, New York University; Robert L. Selman, Harvard Graduate School of Education

Understanding how youth interpret the civic choices available to them requires an approach that incorporates how they think. Relying on survey-driven methods in order to getting at predicted actions ignores the role of context, culture, and agency (Bandura, 2002; Shweder, 1999; Shweder & Sullivan, 1993). A discourse-driven approach allows for a greater integration of culture and context into understanding both the motivations and quality of youth civic participation. We will also present possible methods one can use to research participation via discourse.

Virtue-oriented learning beliefs and behavior: The critical role of culture
Janine Bempechat, Wheelock College; Jin Li, Brown University; Samuel Ronfard, Harvard Graduate School of Education

In this mixed-methods study of low-income Chinese-American adolescents, we examined the relationship between the cultural model of learning communicated by parents (virtue-oriented) and students’ learning beliefs, self-regulatory learning behaviors (SRL), and academic achievement. In-depth interview analyses revealed that perceptions of family educational socialization predicted students’ endorsement of their culture’s learning beliefs and that students’ endorsement of these beliefs predicted achievement. Importantly, children’s use of SRL strategies mediated the relationship between students’ endorsement of virtue-oriented learning beliefs and their achievement. Findings highlight the importance/effectiveness of cultural learning beliefs, which represent a family-based asset that schools can recognize/support to strengthen home-school connections.

Youth in action: Challenges and opportunities in facing racial Issues in a multicultural environment
Vishalache Balakrishnan, University of Malaya

Ethnic Relationship is a core course to be undertaken by all private and government tertiary education students in Malaysia. In my three years of teaching the course three times to students from different faculties including Medical Faculty, Dentistry and Islamic, I found that students undertaking the course have different mindsets which have been formed due to their cultural backgrounds and upbringing. By being involved in such a course, students are transformed and become very critical of Malaysia and the global community of how racial issues are tackled or instigated for the betterment of the nation and vice versa.

H1.5 Media and curricula workshop
Gutman G05

Power as pedagogy: First-year community college students and the humanities
Claire J. King, Stella and Charles Guttman Community College at the City University of New York

What does a general education course look like when used as a lever of power by and for first year undergraduates? Examining student and faculty ePortfolios as a lens into the tools and practices of power-mapping, analytics, digitally-mediated advocacy, service-learning, and civic reflection, we will explore how students encounter the content, questions, and assumptions of the Humanities. Writers, historians, philosophers, spiritual leaders, artists and musicians grapple with big questions such as “What constitutes power?” “Where does it come from?” “Who has it?” These are our students’ questions, too. How can an applied theoretical framework of power facilitate civic learning outcomes?

I1.5 Programs, interventions and evaluations
Longfellow 320

Chair: Peter Hart, University of Leeds

Home life as a “practice”: Narnian virtues and character education
Peter Hart, University of Leeds

This paper presents findings from the first year of data collection in the Narnian Virtues character education curriculum research project. In 2015 we engaged 160 11-13 year-old students across 5 diverse schools in an English Literature curriculum that used three of C.S. Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia. When students were invited to share examples of their practicing of virtue (and vice), the home (rather than school or other social space) was the most significant space. Family life can thus be conceived as a MacIntyrian ‘practice’, through which virtuous living has intrinsic benefits for the young people involved and virtues are habituated.

Improving parent-adolescent transmission of morals and values: A parenting intervention
Jesse P. Higgins, Utah State University

The use of interventions directly targeting parents have been neglected in efforts to positively influence adolescents’ engagement in prosocial behaviors. This is despite the unique role that parents have in adolescents’ lives. Accordingly, a parenting intervention is presented with the aim of increasing adolescent civic engagement through the improvement of parent-adolescent transmission of morals and values efforts. In addition to refining transmission goals and increasing general parenting skills, parents learn how to apply current research in moral development and education to successfully navigate this challenging time for them and their adolescents.

It takes a community: Character formation in out-of-school programs
Peter L. Samuelson, Thrive Foundation for Youth

This paper reports the results of an evaluation of 8 exemplary youth service organizations that had a paid-staff, caring adult at the center of their program delivery model. Using a Principle-focused Evaluation approach (Patton, 2015), 9 principles emerged that guided these organizations. The coding of in-depth interviews with youth from each organization provides a robust demonstration of the 9 principles across all organizations. A central finding of the evaluation is that the caring adult/youth relationship, embedded in a community of shared values, plays an essential role in the positive development of these youth, including their moral and character formation.

Narnian virtues: Character education and the the parent-school partnership
Mark A. Pike, University of Leeds; Peter Hart, University of Leeds; Tom Lickona, State University of New York at Cortland

In this paper we report selected findings from the pilot test of the Narnian Virtues character education literature curriculum with 160 middle-school children in five diverse schools in Yorkshire in the North of England during 2015. After briefly describing this project, we focus on the importance of parents as partners in character education and how we can assess the difference parents make when we involve them in the Narnian Virtues curriculum. We draw upon recent parent interviews and report findings concerning parental engagement with their child’s literature-based character education project in socio-economically poorer areas where engagement has been historically low.

J1.5 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Larsen G01

Chair: Yue (Adam) Shen, University of Oregon

Academic dishonesty: To rationalize or not to rationalize?
Anna R. Hangge, University of Minnesota; Tonia Bock, University of St. Thomas; Maria Hill, University of St. Thomas

We often think of motivation as primarily preceding behavior, but does it also act as a lens that affects moral agency after an unethical behavior has occurred? Several researchers have examined moral disengagement and academic dishonesty, finding that moral disengagement followed academic dishonesty rather than preceding it. In a sample of 223 university students, we tested a mediation model in which three motivational variables (moral identity internalization, integrity, and purpose in life) mediated the relationship between academic dishonesty and moral disengagement. We found that only purpose in life mediated the relationship.

Art intervention into community to enhance university students’ citizenship literacy
Hsinchang Tsai, Taipei National University of the Arts

Can socially engaged aesthetics and art practice be defined as a way of service-learning? Can socially engaged aesthetics and art practice enhance the “social concern and citizenship practice” literacy of university students? In order to clarify these questions, the researcher participated in an “Art Intervention into Community Project” in a university of the arts. This program operated for one semester, and collaborated with the project moderator and the students who would be artists or art teachers in the future. We designed paintings, music, dancing and drama activities to teach local seniors, and rooted the art in an old community.

International student success in U.S. higher education: Whose success?
Yue (Adam) Shen, University of Oregon

Historical records have indicated the prominent constitution of international students in the student population of higher education in the United States. While acknowledging their economic contribution to the host country, researchers and educators in US higher education were also confronted by unique challenges international students face in achieving success in US universities and colleges. A comprehensive review of the research literature on international higher education student success in US reveals the untold stories of what such challenges actually entail: what can success mean in light of international student experience in US higher education?

Towards a university driven service learning model for community development
Marcellus Mbah, Bournemouth University

The nature of the work of universities is multidimensional and their contribution to the public good is contestable. This paper reports a case study which captures the complexities of incorporating community-based service learning (CBSL) within the framework of a university’s community engagement to aid local development within an African setting. Whilst CBSL is projected as an instrument that can instigate community development, this paper advances the need for informed community participation in the framing and firming up of CBSL processes, looking beyond short term planning and nurturing sustainability through a deeper dissemination as well as follow-up of CBSL evaluation reports.

K1.5 Higher education, professional development and arts education
Larsen 106

Chair: Chi-Ming (Angela) Lee, National Taiwan Normal University

An Investigation of Chinese college students’ civic participation
Shuibing Zeng, Jiangxi Normal University; Fan Liming, Jiangxi Normal University

The college students’ civic participation influence Chinese political future. This study adopts the method of questionnaire investigation and Individual interview.We choose 872 college students from three different types of universities as survey respondents.Through the empirical investigation,we found that most students have strong civic participation motivation,but they are weak in ability.The new media network play a greater and greater role in college students’ civic participatory approach.This paper delves into the factors that impact college students’ civic participation. In order to promote the college students’ citizen participation, the paper put forward four suggestions.

An Investigation of Taiwanese students’ Moral Thinking and Communication (MTC) competencies
Chi-Ming (Angela) Lee, National Taiwan Normal University; Stephen Thoma, University of Alabama

The main purpose of this paper is to explore Taiwanese students’ moral thinking and communication competencies, all of which are essential for modern civic and moral education. The rationale of the MTC functioning and the scale are based on L. Kohlberg’s theory, Neo-Kohlbergian theory, J. Habermas’s discourse ethics and L. Hinman’s ethical pluralism. Nine hundred and thirty-six students ranging from the junior high to university graduate levels participated. Results supported hypothesized declining pattern of MTC competencies from moral awareness, moral judgment, and moral discourse to moral decision-making. Differences on the MTC were also noted by gender, educational levels and regions.

Is having citizenship necessary to be political? Understanding political participation of immigrants from a developmental perspective
Aysenur Ataman, The Graduate Center, City University of New York

This research will examine how types of participation differ by citizenship status, age, gender, and country. Participants of the study are Turkish adolescents and young adults (aged between 16 and 26) residing in Belgium (N=157), Germany (N=120) and Turkey (N= 253). Confirming the main hypothesis; citizenship status did not show any effect concerning types of participation (online, civic and traditional). Age, gender and country were significantly related with the type of participation in various degrees. Results are discussed in light of the naturalization processes of migrant groups in Belgium and Germany, and extensive religious involvement of Turkish German participants.

Justice of the affirmative action in university and moral competence
Kênia E. Vieira, Centro Universitário das Faculdades Associadas de Ensino; Betânia V. Dell’ Agli, Centro Universitário das Faculdades Associadas de Ensino

This study has as an objective to verify the judgment of affirmative actions and correlate them with the moral competency level. 317 students, 15 professors were studied by means of a dilemma and the MCT. The results show a low competency score and an agreement with favorable arguments to affirmative actions related to persona interest. The results were discussed considering a judgement with equity demand levels of superiority competency. There’s the need for an education focused on an increasing capacity to judge and act morally, contributing to this policy’s success, the permanency in college, the autonomy and the unitholder’s development.

L1.5 Social, emotional and moral development
Gutman Conference Center Area 3

Chair: Maria Sucupira Lins, Universidade Federal Rio De Janeiro

Assessing the developmental status of acts of forgiveness
Jonathan M. Tirrell, Tufts University; H. Gemma Stern, Tufts University; W. George Scarlett, Tufts University

Forgiveness is often considered a moral character virtue with implications for fostering adaptive social relationships. However, few studies have explored how the act of forgiving undergoes developmental changes with respect to structure and organization. Accordingly, in the present study, we analyzed personal stories from adults published by The Forgiveness Project to develop and test a description system and relational developmental systems model that allow for a more precise and comprehensive assessment of any given act of forgiveness. The description system explores reasons and means of forgiving as described by forgivers. Initial findings from model development and model fitting are discussed.

Exploring the developmental structure of forgiveness in elementary students
Jonathan M. Tirrell, Tufts University; Milena Batanova, Tufts University; Lacey J. Hilliard, Tufts University; Richard M. Lerner, Tufts University

The process of forgiveness involves relations among recognizing negative emotions, perspective-taking, and empathizing. However, no empirical model exists for understanding the developmental structure of forgiveness, particularly in children. Accordingly, we used a sample of 603 fourth- and fifth-grade students (55.9% female) to examine a structural model whereby constructs of emotion awareness, perspective-taking, humility, empathy, sympathy, caring, generosity, and love were used to predict two aspects of forgiveness, and vice-versa. Findings indicated that only perspective-taking predicted forgiveness, and no constructs predicted conditional forgiveness. Furthermore, conditional forgiveness predicted all constructs, and forgiveness predicted all constructs except caring. Implications are discussed.

Understanding and expressing gratitude: Perspectives of eighth-grade students
Indrawati Liauw, Stanford University; Rebecca Nyquist, University of Pennsylvania; Alisa Yu, University of Pennsylvania; Robert Borah, Stanford University

In gratitude research, relatively few studies consider how youth conceptualize and experience gratitude. In this mixed-methods study, we present qualitative descriptions of how eighth-grade students understand the function of gratitude, the ways in which they express gratitude, and whether gratitude is a salient quality among them. We also examine how these descriptions compare with the students’ responses on an adapted gratitude self-report measure – Gratitude Questionnaire-6. This paper illuminate the components of gratitude that the GQ-6 is measuring and the areas in which interview material contributes information about respondents’ orientations to gratitude that is not captured by the survey measure.

Moral education and personality development
Maria Sucupira Lins, Universidade Federal Rio De Janeiro; Carla Cristina Souza, Universidade Federal Rio De Janeiro

This research focuses on a Moral Education program for seven-year-old children in a public school. They were first graders and they had already learnt how to read. We presented four virtues to the children. The virtues were friendship, temperance, perseverance and justice. The objective of this research was to improve the development of ethical personality. Theoretical foundation was the philosophy of virtues of Aristotle and the personality theory of Carl Gustav Jung. The methodological approach was Sucupira Lins Method for action research with commitment. Data show that it is possible to develop moral personality through the practice of virtues.